Buildings & Efficiency

Policies that decarbonize and reduce energy use in the buildings sector

Building Energy Codes and Standards

Residential and Commercial Energy Codes

Building codes standardize the design and engineering requirements for new construction of buildings, including renovations. These requirements include energy-related decisions such as insulation, window fabrication, roofing loads, etc., and they are consistently updated to include changes and best practices in technology and methodology. In particular, building energy codes provide a baseline for energy efficiency. 

In the U.S, states can adopt building codes in a few different ways. Some do not put forth any statewide building codes, instead choosing to implement home rule, which shifts the onus of adoption to local jurisdictions including counties and cities. Other states adopt building codes through legislative actions or through mandates of regulatory bodies. A majority of statewide codes are based on the International Code Council’s I-Codes and/or the ASHRAE standards, although some states will create their own codes with more stringent or more relaxed requirements. 

What are I-Codes? The I-Codes are widely adopted in the United States and created by the International Code Council. These codes are created as model rules, meant to be adopted with various amendments in order to better serve each particular jurisdiction. I-Codes include the International Building Code (for commercial structures), the International Residential Code, and the International Energy Conservation Code, among others. The most current versions are the 2018 I-Codes, with the 2021 versions in process.

Key Resources

Model States

  • Vermont’s Residential and Commercial Building Energy Standards — Key changes include a solar ready residential stretch code, tightened ventilation requirements, and electric vehicle charging requirements in both the base and stretch codes.
  • Washington State Energy Code — Adopts 2015 International Energy Conservation Code for residential and commercial buildings, with state-specific amendments. The WSEC establishes a goal of 70 percent reduction in annual new building energy consumption by 2031.

    Stretch Building Energy Codes

    While many states have adopted mandatory building and building energy codes, local jurisdictions have the power to adopt regulations that are more rigorous than state codes. These are known as stretch codes (as opposed to the base code) and result in more energy efficiency and thus more energy savings. Local governments can use stretch codes to incorporate technologies, methodologies, and regulations that are not included in statewide mandates. Often, stretch codes will be performance-based codes, which measures the overall energy usage of a building.

    Key Resources

    Model States

      Building Performance Standards

      Building performance standards are an intervention for existing buildings that is gaining popularity in U.S. states. A large portion of existing commercial and residential buildings were built without energy efficiency standards, or while adhering to outdated standards. Building performance standards mandate that existing buildings must meet a minimum energy efficiency target, which is established by the state and becomes more stringent over time. Over time, building owners and developers have to invest in energy reductions, building retrofits, renovations, and construction/design changes to adhere to the standard. Some of these policies include different phases which require different energy savings over set periods of time.

      Key Resources

      Model States

        Appliance and Equipment Standards

        Appliance and equipment standards set minimum energy conservation (often including water efficiency) regulations. While these are now set at the federal level, states can also legislate stricter standards for appliances and building equipment, including for those not covered by national directives. Over time, these standards are updated to reflect new technologies and energy efficiency targets.

        Key Resources

        Model States

          Efficiency Programs and Financing

          Weatherization Funding

          From the Center for the New Energy Economy (CNEE): The federal government runs the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) and the Low Income Heating and Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) to help low-income customers pay energy bills, reduce energy costs, and decrease overall energy consumption. However, the demand for energy assistance services provided by these programs is greater than the level of federal funding required to meet these needs. 

          To help meet the growing need for energy assistance, states have enacted supplemental programs to support LIHEAP and WAP services, including utility-administered energy efficiency programs that target low-income customers. States receive federal weatherization funds to operate a low income weatherization program that is focused on increasing the efficiency of low income customers. The utility is also subsidized with cash assistance to low income customers who are unable to pay their utility bill. One policy might add a rider to utility bills that would go toward a low income weatherization fund that would deploy weatherization assistance to all recipients of cash assistance – using the existing infrastructure of weatherization providers. As a separately funded program to the federal program, this program could benefit from state specific goals that would not be allowable under the federally funded program or could be used to expand the services offered by the federally funded program. 

          Recent state legislative efforts also reflect a growing interest in addressing the low-income energy burden and providing support beyond LIHEAP and WAP. State energy assistance programs generally focus on bill payment assistance for income-qualified individuals, while low-income energy efficiency programs are designed to deliver energy savings and reduce energy costs.

          Key Resources

          Model States

          • The California Solar Initiative, or CSI, reserved 10 percent of its budget, or $216 million, to support the adoption of solar power by low-income families. This budget is divided between the Single-Family Affordable Solar Housing, or SASH, and Multifamily Affordable Housing, or MASH, programs.
          • Colorado’s SB 09-051 established the state’s shared solar program and reserved 5% of all subscribers for low income. The PUC has implemented this by saying each project needs to have 5% of subscribers qualified as low income. Another approach would be to provide a larger payment to developers for each kWh going to low income customers – creating a market push toward more low income subscribers.

            Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

            From the Center for the New Energy Economy (CNEE): An Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS) establishes a percentage of energy demand reduction that a utility will achieve by a specific date or on an annual basis through demand reduction programs. States can achieve reductions in a variety of ways, and targets can be set through legislation or by directing the state’s utility commission to set energy efficiency targets. EERSs are often based on these three common models: adopting resource-specific targets, fuel-neutral goals, or multiple-goal approaches that incorporate resource-specific and fuel-neutral goals. As new climate goals are established and regulations change, policymakers are shaping their states’ EERSs to reflect the benefits of energy efficiency: improved air quality, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and improved public health.

            While EERSs usually take the form of mandatory targets or voluntary goals, there are a few exceptions. In some states, energy efficiency is an eligible resource under the state’s renewable portfolio standard. In others, legislation requires utilities to set certain goals, utilities are not penalized for failing to meet these goals and are instead incentivized to exceed the goals. Targets can also vary greatly, from less than 0.5% of retail sales per year to 2% or more per year. The majority of states that have implemented EERSs have been successful at achieving savings at or above target goals and also enjoy the economic benefits of additional energy efficiency jobs.

            Key Resources

            Model States

              Financing Programs

              Financing programs provide a way for building owners to complete energy efficiency upgrades, including retrofits, without having to pay the entire cost of the operation up front. Two of the most popular include Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) and Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs). States must pass enabling legislation for both of these programs to function.

              PACE loans can finance up to 100% efficiency upgrades against the property itself, rather than the owner. The PACE loans are tied to property tax assessments, and the repayment period is spread out over ten to twenty years. If a property changes ownership while the loan is still being paid off, the loan stays tied to the property.

              ESPC programs allow building owners, including governments, to pay for efficiency upgrades with the future energy savings of the investment. ESPC programs partner with energy service companies to complete retrofits and other upgrades at no immediate cost. Over time, the savings from those upgrades are used to pay the energy service company. Furthermore, ESPCs include performance guarantees, thus eliminating both the prohibitive cost and any doubts about reliability.

              Key Resources

              Model States

              • California PACE Loan Loss Reserve — California operates a loan loss reserve for PACE loans generated in-state.
              • Hawaii DOT ESPC — The Hawaii Dept. of Transportation completed a $245M contract for deep energy efficiency retrofits, the largest single-state ESPC in the US, with Johnson Controls.

                Energy Disclosure

                Energy Disclosure

                Energy disclosure policies serve as an awareness tool and market mechanisms to encourage energy efficiency adoption in buildings. When potential renters and buyers are aware of the energy usage of a particular building, it can influence their choices as consumers. Thus, owners and sellers who are required to disclose energy use have an incentive to increase energy efficiency in a bid to appeal to more buyers. 

                There are different types of energy disclosure policies. Some of the most common include benchmarking and labeling, or certification. Benchmarking draws a comparison between a particular building and an average baseline, generally developed based on either peer building usage. This strategy becomes much more effective when the data is made publicly available, encouraging owners to take action to curb energy usage. 

                Labeling programs are geared towards appliances and other consumer products. When commercially available appliances are required to disclose the energy usage of their products to buyers who may be influenced by that data, they are more incentivized to create goods with higher efficiency.

                Key Resources

                Model States

                  Lead by Example

                  Lead by Example

                  Lead by example policies is an umbrella term for many policy actions that a state government can take to show energy efficiency leadership. Taking action to reduce the energy usage of government buildings, facilities, and property not only represents monetary savings but also showcases the viability of energy efficiency policies and programs. These can include setting energy savings targets; retrofitting older or more energy intensive buildings; providing benchmarking data; and other related policies.

                  Key Resources

                  Model States

                  • Connecticut
                  • Massachusetts
                  • Maryland
                  • California

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