STATE CARBON PRICING NETWORK

The State Carbon Pricing Network (SCPN) is a network of thousands of advocates, legislators, and experts spearheading carbon pricing efforts in their state. It is a platform for campaign leaders to connect and collaborate with one another, exchanging wisdom and resources. Click on the states below for up-to-date carbon pricing policies and emissions data. 

Alabama

Although Alabama’s emissions have been declining over the past decade, the state does not have an established climate action plan or greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. The state government has made small efforts toward reducing emissions; Governor Kay Ivey (R) signed a gas tax increase in March 2019 that enacts an annual $200 fee on electric vehicles (EV) and $100 for hybrid vehicles, with some of the revenue funding a grant program to install EV charging centers in Alabama.

More on Alabama

2020 Legislation

  • The 2020 Legislative Session convenes on February 4th and adjourns on March 27th.

Political Context

  • Republicans control the legislature and executive branch and in Alabama
  • The Alabama House of Representatives has 77 Republicans and 28 Democrats, and the state Senate has 27 Republicans and 8 Democrats. 
  • Republican Gov. Kay Ivey has not prioritized environmental legislation. 

Constitutional Constraints

  • The Alabama state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

Past Legislation 

  • N/A

Emission Reduction Target

  • N/A

Further Reading

  • N/A

Key Figures

  • N/A

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

115

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

566

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

43

Alaska

Former Independent Gov. Bill Walker established the Climate Action for Alaska Leadership Team via administrative order in 2017. The Team released a proposed action plan that included recommendations for a carbon pricing scheme. In December of 2018, Walker was replaced by Republican Gov. Mike Dunleavy who eliminated the Team, likely delaying serious climate action in the state. In 2019, the Anchorage Assembly voted to adopt a city climate action plan, which aims to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050. Several other major cities like Fairbanks hope to release their own plan as well.

More on Alaska

2020 Legislation

  • The 2020 Legislative Session convened on January 14th and adjourns on May 16th. 

Political Context

  • Republican Gov. Dunleavy has taken the state backwards on climate policy, dismantling the Climate Action for Alaska Leadership Team established under his predecessor Gov. Bill Walker in 2017. 
  • Republicans hold a 23-16 majority in the House, with one Independent, and a 13-7 majority in the Senate. 

Past Legislation

  • N/A

Emission Reduction Target

  • N/A

Further Reading

  • N/A

Key Figures

  • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Alaska? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

35

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

706

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

47

Arizona

Arizona was a founding member of the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) regional emissions trading program in 2007 under Democratic Gov. Janet Napolitano. However, Napolitano was replaced by Republican Gov. Jan Brewer in 2009, who ordered the state not to implement the cap-and-trade scheme. Arizona formally withdrew from the WCI in 2011, and has not considered carbon pricing since then. Advocates and state energy regulators have been working to increase the state’s renewable portfolio standard to a more ambitious target than its current target of 15% by 2025.

More on Arizona

2019 Legislation

  • The 2020 Legislative Session convened on January 13th and adjourns on April 30th

Political Context

  • Arizona’s legislature and executive branch are controlled by Republicans. Republicans hold a 31–29 majority over Democrats in the House and 17–13 majority in the Senate. 
  • Republican Gov. Doug Ducey has not displayed any environmental leadership in his administration. 

Constitutional Constraints

  • The Arizona state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

Past Legislation

  • N/A

Emission Reduction Target

  • 2000 levels by 2020
  • 50% below 2000 levels by 2040

Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

  • By 2025: 15% clean energy

Further Reading

  • N/A

Key Figures

  • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Arizona? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

87

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

279

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

24

Arkansas

While no legislation for carbon pricing was filed in Arkansas this session, the Citizens’ Climate Lobby is working hard to pass clean energy initiatives. Arkansas’s CCL supported SB 145 in the Senate, which expands renewable energy use and makes it more accessible to residents. Now Act 464, the legislation was signed by Governor Asa Hutchinson (R) on March 14th 2019.

More on Arkansas

2020 Legislation

  • The 2020 Legislative Session convenes on April 8th and adjourns on May 7th

Political Context

  • Republican Gov. Asa Hutchinson supported Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, and has not supported emission-curbing policies. 
  • Republicans have an overwhelming majority in the Senate (26-9) and House (76-24). 

Emission Reduction Targets 

  • N/A

Past Legislation

  • N/A

Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

  • N/A

Further Reading

  • N/A

Key Figures

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

62

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

520

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

39

California

California has long been a state leader in climate change, imposing some of the most ambitious reduction targets and strongest regulations. It is currently the only state with an economy-wide cap-and-invest program. The cap-and-invest program generated $525 million in revenue in its first year alone, and almost $12 billion in aggregate since 2013. It has also been successful in helping California meet its 2020 emission reduction target, which it surpassed in 2018, and stay on track to meet its 2030 reduction goals. A carbon tax study bill has also been introduced this session; SB 43 is making its way through Committee and would have the Air Resource Board conduct a study that looks into replacing current sales tax with one that takes into account carbon intensity of products.

More on California

2019-2020 Legislation

The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on December 3, 2018 and will adjourn on November 30, 2020. 

  • A carbon tax study bill (SB 43) has been introduced by Sen. Ben Allen. The tax would replace the sales-and-use tax with a carbon tax that would be based on the “carbon intensity” of the product. 
    • Status: Passed by Senate Environmental Quality Committee (5-2) and by the Senate Governance and Finance Committee (4-2). Passed as amended by the Committee of Appropriations. Ordered to Assembly and passed by Committee on Natural Resources (8-3). Failed in the Committee on Revenue and Taxation (1-5) and reconsideration granted.

Political Context

  • Democratic Gov. Gavin Newsom is a long-time environmentalist. He supports former Gov. Jerry Brown’s goal of California producing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2045, and has even stated he wants the state to be a “net exporter” of clean power, shipping surplus electricity to neighboring states. Most recently, Newsom announced California will stop buying cars from automakers that backed the Trump administration’s decision to strip the state’s authority to set stricter pollution standards.
  • Overwhelming Democratic majorities exist in both the Senate (29-11) and House (60-20).  

Constitutional Constraints

  • The California state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway and/or mass transit purposes.

Emission Reduction Targets

  • By 2020: 1990 levels
  • By 2030: 40% below 1990 levels 
  • By 2050: 80% below 1990 levels 

Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

  • By 2030: 60% clean energy
  • By 2045: 100% clean energy

Past Legislation

  • In 2013, California became the first US state to launch a multi-sector, cap-and-trade program. The program regulates the emissions of more than 450 businesses — large electric power plants, large industrial plants, and fuel distributors — that are collectively responsible for about 85% of the state’s total greenhouse gas emissions. 
    • Origin of program: In 2006, California’s Global Warming Solution Act (AB 32), introduced by Assemblymembers Fran Pavley and Fabien Nunez, laid the groundwork for California’s cap-and-trade program. The Act called for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) — the state’s clean air agency — to enact regulations that would allow the state to reduce its emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. These regulations ultimately came in the form of an economy-wide cap on emissions. 
    • Fee system: Entities regulated by the program are allocated a specific number of carbon allowances each year, an amount that declines annually. 
      • The California emissions cap, which stood at 358 million tons of carbon in 2018, will plummet to 200 million by 2030, a 44% decrease. 
      • After an entity pollutes beyond its allocated amount, they must purchase additional allowances via quarterly auctions. These allowances, essentially permits to pollute, are sold at a reserve price (minimum price) that increases by 5% annually. For example, in California’s August 2017 auction, allowances were sold for $15.48 per ton, even though the reserve price was $13.57. 
      • The carbon market, shaped by how much companies are willing to pay and what demand looks like, determines the price of allowances. Allowance sales are how the program raises revenue, as the initial supply of allowances provided to governments is free. 
    • Revenue breakdown: 
      • 45% invested in reducing state emissions, through renewable energy and energy efficiency measures 
      • 35% rebated to households and businesses
      • 15% allocated to energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries
      • 5% held in the state reserve
    • Status: A scoping plan for the program is updated every 5 years. In 2015, a provision was added that emissions should be 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. In 2017, legislation (AB 398) extended the cap-and-trade program through 2030.

Further Reading

Key Figures

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

361

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

136

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

5

Colorado

While Colorado has not been successful in moving carbon pricing legislation forward at the state level, the state has demonstrated leadership at the city level through initiatives such as the Boulder Climate Action Plan. On May 30th, Governor Jared Polis (D) signed SB 19-236 into law, requiring utilities to factor in the social cost of carbon when making resource planning decisions. The social cost of carbon starts at $46 per ton and increases at least with inflation. Colorado also passed the Climate Action Plan to Reduce Pollution (HB 19-1261) this session. Signed into law on May 30th, the bill establishes state-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction goals of 26% by 2025, 50% by 2030, and 90% by 2050 in comparison to 2005 levels.

More on Colorado

2019 Legislation

The 2020 Legislative Session began on January 8th and wraps up on May 5th.

  • A bill (SB 236) proposing that the Colorado Public Utilities Commission consider the social cost of carbon when making utility decisions was introduced in the Senate.
    • Fee System: Price would start at $46 per ton in 2020 and increase at least by the rate of inflation. 
    • Status: The bill, introduced in April, passed the legislature on May 3rd and was signed into law by the governor on May 30th.

Political Context

  • Democrats currently hold the majority in both the House (41-24) and Senate (19-16)
  • Governor Jared Polis (D) made environmental issues a cornerstone of his campaign, and has pledged to ensure the state’s energy supply is 100% renewable by 2040.

Constitutional Constraints

  • The state constitution requires a ballot initiative to pass a tax increase.
  • Revenue from a gas tax must go towards highway purposes.

Emission Reduction Targets

  • By 2025: More than 26% below 2005 levels 
  • By 2030: More than 50% below 2005 levels
  • By 2050: More than 90% below 2005 levels

Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

In 2004, Colorado’s voters became the first in the country to adopt an RPS by ballot initiative.

  • By 2020: 30% clean energy

Past Legislation

While carbon pricing legislation has not yet been introduced at the state level, the city of Boulder made headlines in 2007, when voters approved an electric-sector carbon tax. 

  • In 2007, the city of Boulder passed the Climate Action Plan (CAP), which was branded as America’s first voter-approved tax aiming to address climate change. The fee is based on the amount of electricity consumed. 
    • Fee system: The CAP levies a tax on residents and businesses, imposing different rates depending on the sector. Xcel Energy collects the tax on its monthly utility bills, and customers subscribing to wind-generated power are exempt from taxation. 
      • The average resident pays $21 per year.
      • The average commercial organization pays $96 per year.
      • The average industrial organization, approximately 13 of the city’s largest energy users, pay $9,600 per year.
      • Based on those three sectors, annual revenue from the fee is about $1.8 million.
    • Revenue breakdown:
      • 38% to enhance commercial and industrial building energy efficiency
      • 25% to enhance residential building efficiency
      • 25% for local renewables, EVs, and market innovation
      • 12% for strategy development, outreach, and program evaluation
    • Status: In 2015, the city of Boulder voted to extend the CAP tax through 2023. So far, the tax has generated almost $18 million in revenue.
  • In 2019, a bill (SB 236) proposing that the Colorado Public Utilities Commission consider the social cost of carbon when making utility decisions was signed into law by the governor on May 30th.
    • Fee System: Price will start at $46 per ton in 2020 and increase at least by the rate of inflation.

Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

  • N/A

Further Reading

Key Figures

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

89

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

271

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

32

Connecticut 

Legislators have been vying for an economy-wide fee on carbon pollution for several years now. Such legislation was introduced by Rep. Jonathan Steinberg (D) in each of the last three years. Once again, carbon pricing did not get out of Committee. Some advocates have shifted their focus on the Transportation and Climate Initiative and on reinstating highway tolls; Connecticut is one of the few Eastern Seaboard states that does not have any highway tolls. 

On September 3rd, Governor Ned Lamont (D) issued an executive order that requires the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to create a strategy to achieve a target of a 100% carbon-free electric sector by 2040.

More on Connecticut

2020 Legislation

The 2020 Legislative Session begins on February 5th and wraps up on May 6th. 

  • On the Senate side, “An Act Establishing a Carbon Price for Fossil Fuels Sold in Connecticut” (SB 1064) was introduced by Rep. David Michel and Rep. Mary Mushinky. 
    • Fee system: Will impose a $15 per carbon ton fee in 2021, rising $5 per year after. 
    • Revenue breakdown: 
      • 45% returned to employers in state via dividends
      • 50% to residents
      • 5% to cover administrative costs
    • Status: Introduced on March 12 and referred to Joint Committee on the Environment. Deferred after March 18 hearing. 

Political Context

  • Democratic Gov. Lamont has promised constituents he will prioritize climate issues during his first term. His goals are ambitious: for the state’s energy portfolio to be 100 percent renewable by 2040, and for all new homes and buildings to be zero carbon by 2035. He’s also advocated for the state to put a price on carbon. 
  • Democrats hold majorities in both the Senate (19-16) and House (41-24).
  • There are many new legislators in the state this session who have formed a Progressive Caucus. These lawmakers could be strong legislative champions going into the 2020 session.

Emission Reduction Targets

  • By 2020: 10% below 1990 levels
  • By 2030: 45% below 2001 levels
  • By 2050: 80% below 2001 levels 

Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

  • By 2030: 40% clean energy
  • By 2040: goal of 100% clean energy

Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

Past Legislation

  • In 2015, Connecticut formed the Governor’s Council on Climate Change to evaluate ways to reach the state’s ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of 80% below 2001 levels by 2050.
  • In 2017, Rep. Steinberg (D) introduced “An Act Establishing a Carbon Price for Fossil Fuels Sold in Connecticut” (HB 7247)
    • Fee system: Starting price is $15 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually
    • Revenue breakdown:
      • 25% toward climate resilience, efficiency, and renewable energy programs
      • 30% rebated to employers in the state
      • 40% rebated to state residents
      • 5% to administration 
    • Result: Did not make it out of committee 
  • In 2018, Rep. Steinberg, along with Rep. Cristin Vahey and Rep. Mushinsky, introduced a revenue neutral carbon pricing bill, “An Act Establishing a Carbon Price for Fossil Fuels Sold in Connecticut” (HB 5363). 
    • Fee system: Starting price is $15 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually
    • Revenue breakdown:
      • 50% rebated to residents 
      • 45% rebated to employers 
      • 5% for administrative purposes 
    • Result: Did not make it out of committee 

Further Reading

Key Figures

2019 Legislation

The 2019 Legislative Session began on January 9th and wrapped up on June 5th. 

  • On the Senate side, “An Act Establishing a Carbon Price for Fossil Fuels Sold in Connecticut” (SB 1064) was introduced by Rep. David Michel and Rep. Mary Mushinky. 
    • Fee system: Will impose a $15 per carbon ton fee in 2021, rising $5 per year after. 
    • Revenue breakdown: 45% returned to employers in state via dividends, 50% to residents, 5% to cover administrative costs. 
    • Status: Introduced on March 12 and referred to Joint Committee on the Environment. Deferred after March 18 hearing. 

Political Context

  • Democratic Gov. Lamont has promised constituents he will prioritize climate issues during his first term. His goals are ambitious: for the state’s energy portfolio to be 100 percent renewable by 2050, and for all new homes and buildings to be zero carbon by 2035. He’s also advocated for the state to put a price on carbon. 
  • Democrats hold majorities in both the Senate (19-16) and House (41-24).
  • There are many new legislators in the state this session who have formed a Progressive Caucus. These lawmakers could be strong legislative champions going into the 2020 session.

Emission Reduction Targets

  • By 2020: 10% below 1990 levels
  • By 2050: 80% below 2001 levels 

Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Connecticut remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
  • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Newly elected Gov. Ned Lamont (D) has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 
  • Carbon Costs Coalition: Connecticut legislators are a part of a multistate alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

Past Legislation

  • In 2015, Connecticut formed the Governor’s Council on Climate Change to evaluate ways to reach the state’s ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of 80% below 2001 levels by 2050.
  • In 2017, Rep. Steinberg (D) introduced “An Act Establishing a Carbon Price for Fossil Fuels Sold in Connecticut” (HB 7247)
    • Fee system: Starting price is $15 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually
    • Revenue breakdown:
      • 25% toward climate resilience, efficiency, and renewable energy programs
      • 30% rebated to employers in the state
      • 40% rebated to state residents
      • 5% to administration 
    • Result: Did not make it out of committee 
  • In 2018, Rep. Steinberg, along with Rep. Cristin Vahey and Rep. Mushinsky, introduced a revenue neutral carbon pricing bill, “An Act Establishing a Carbon Price for Fossil Fuels Sold in Connecticut” (HB 5363). 
    • Fee system: Starting price is $15 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually
    • Revenue breakdown:
      • 50% rebated to residents 
      • 45% rebated to employers 
      • 5% for administrative purposes 
    • Result: Did not make it out of committee 
  • In 2019, Rep. David Michel and Rep. Mary Mushinsky introduced a revenue neutral carbon pricing bill, “An Act Establishing a Carbon Price for Fossil Fuels Sold in Connecticut” (SB 1064). 
    • Fee system: Will impose a $15 per carbon ton fee in 2021, rising $5 per year after.
    • Revenue breakdown:
      • 45% returned to employers in state via dividends
      • 50% to residents
      • 5% to cover administrative costs
    • Result: Did not make it out of committee

Further Reading

Key Figures

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

34

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

130

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

3

Delaware 

Delaware, a founding member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), pledged this fall to partake in another carbon pricing scheme — the Transportation and Climate Initiative (TCI) — which would cap transportation sector emissions. However, the idea of imposing a direct, multi-sector fee on carbon pollution hasn’t gained much traction in the state. The League of Women Voters of Delaware conducted a study on statewide carbon pricing in 2015, which found that pricing carbon, either via a direct fee or a regulatory mechanism like cap-and-trade, would significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

More on Delaware

2019-2020 Legislation

The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 8th, 2019 and will wrap up on June 30th, 2020. 

Political Context

  • Democratic Governor John Carney generally supports strong climate policy. He firmly opposed Trump’s repeal of the Clean Power Plan, and is a member of the U.S. Climate Alliance. He hasn’t advocated for carbon pricing, however. 
  • Democratic hold majorities in the Senate (12-9) and House (26-15), but no clear carbon pricing champions have stood out in the legislature. (Consequently, no carbon pricing legislation has been introduced). 

Emission Reduction Targets

  • By 2030: 33% below 2008 levels 

Past Legislation

  • N/A

Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

Further Reading

  • N/A

Key Figures

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

13

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

189

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

12

Florida

Although federal level Representatives from Florida have introduced carbon pricing bills, state legislators have yet to do the same. There have been several bills introduced this session attempting to establish renewable portfolio standard (RPS) targets for the state.

In March 2019, legislators introduced bills (SB 1762/HB 1291) that would establish renewable energy goals for the state and develop a plan for achieving these goals. The bill would establish an interim goal of at least 40% clean energy by 2030 and 100% clean energy by 2050. In May, the bills were withdrawn from consideration and died in committee. In September, a similar bill (SB 256) was pre-filed for the 2020 legislative session to establish an RPS of 100% clean energy by 2050.

More on Florida

2020 Legislation

The 2020 Legislative Session convened on January 14th and adjourns on March 13th.

Political Context

  • Florida has a Republican state government trifecta. 
  • There are 73 Republicans and 47 Democrats in the Florida House of Representatives, and 23 Republicans and 17 Democrats in the State Senate. 
  • Republican Gov. Ron DeSantis previously voted against a carbon fee while in the US House of Representatives, but did issue an executive order calling for the establishment of an Office of Resilience and Coastal Protection, inherently responding to climate-related threats.  

Past Legislation

  • N/A

Emission Reduction Target

  • 1990 levels by 2025
  • 80% below 1990 levels by 2050

Further Reading

  • N/A

Key Figures

  • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Florida? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

230

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

245

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

18

Georgia

While Georgia has not introduced carbon pricing legislation, renewable energy has seen massive growth in the state. Georgia ranks 7th in the nation in solar capacity and has added thousands of clean energy jobs annually. Cities are leading clean energy efforts due to inaction at the state level. Atlanta has demonstrated leadership with pushing carbon-free electricity forward; in 2017, Atlanta passed Clean Energy Atlanta, a comprehensive plan to transition the city to 100% clean energy by 2035. Athens, GA is committed to 100% clean electricity by 2035 and 100% clean energy for heating and transportation by 2050; Augusta and Clarkston are committed to achieving 100% clean electricity by 2050

More on Georgia

2019-2020 Legislation

The 2019–2020 Legislative Session convened on January 14th, 2019 and will adjourn on March 27th, 2020. 

Political Context

Georgia has a Republican state government trifecta.

  • The Georgia House of Representatives has 105 Republicans to 75 Democrats, and the State Senate has 35 Republicans to 21 Democrats. 
  • Republican Gov. Brian Kemp has not been explicit about his stance on clean energy, the environment or clean transportation. He supports “fact-based efforts” to protect the environment, but has not endorsed any specific climate policies. Kemp recommends local regulations instead of enacting statewide solutions.

Constitutional Restraints

  • The Georgia state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

Past Legislation

  • N/A

Emission Reduction Target

  • N/A

Further Reading

  • N/A

Key Figures

Bill Hawthorne; Chief Resilience Officer for City of Atlanta

Emissions by Sector

Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

136

Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

253

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

19

Hawaii

This session, Hawaii has the potential to pass carbon pricing legislation with SB 3150. The bill is currently being heard in the Senate Ways and Means Committee, and if it passes, it will move to the Senate floor for a vote. 

The state government has largely supported the idea of carbon pricing; Hawaii’s Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Commission firmly recommended that lawmakers enact carbon pricing, declaring that a “price on carbon is the most effective single action that will achieve Hawaii’s ambitious and necessary emissions reduction goals.” Hawaii was also the first state in the country to legally commit to a zero-emissions, carbon neutral economy by 2045.

More on Hawaii

2019-2020 Legislation

The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 16 and will wrap up in May of 2020.  

In the Senate, SB 3150 will set a price on carbon beginning in 2021 if passed. 

  • Fee system: The price on carbon will be set at $40 per metric ton of carbon in 2020, and increase to a price of $80 by 2030.
  • Revenue: 
    • For propane, butane, gasoline, diesel, kerosene, aviation gas, and jet fuel taxes, the revenue is distributed as such: 
    • $1,291,000 will be deposited into the environmental response fund;
    • $3,872,000 will be given to the energy security special fund;
    • $2,582,000 will be given into the energy systems development fund;
    • $3,872,000 will be deposited into the agricultural development and food security special fund.
    • For coal and natural gas taxes, revenue is distributed as such: 
      • 4.8 cents of each one million British thermal unit will be deposited into the environmental response revolving fund; 
      • 14.3 cents will be given to the energy security special fund; 
      • 9.5 cents will be deposited into the energy systems development special fund;
      • 14.3 cents will go towards the agricultural development and food security special fund.

In the House, HB 2653 was introduced on January 23rd, 2020, and replaces the environmental response, energy, and food security tax as well as the state fuel tax with a carbon emissions tax.

  • Fee system: The bill sets the fee at $18 per ton of carbon emissions. 
  • Revenue: 
    • Tax credits will be given to low income taxpayers, depending on their gross annual income. 
    • Another portion will be distributed into the environmental response fund, the energy security special fund, the energy systems development fund, and the agricultural development and food security special fund.
    • Some portion of the revenue also goes towards ensuring Hawaii airports comply with standards. 
  • Status: This bill passed through the Senate, and passed through its first reading in the House.

In the Senate, SB 3149, an identical version of HB 2653, was introduced.

  • Status: In Agriculture and Environment/EET, Ways and Means. 

In the House, an identical version of SB 3150, HB 2654, was introduced.

Political Context

  • Gov. David Ige (D) has been a leader on climate issues and will likely support carbon pricing legislation. 
  • Democrats have overwhelming majorities in both the Senate (24-1) and House (46-5). Legislators have noted, however, that these figures can be misleading, as politicians often run as Democrats in order to increase their chances of election. 

Past Legislation

One Carbon Pricing Bill Passed Through Senate in 2019

  • “An Act Relating to Taxation” (SB 1463 / HB 1459) calls for the replacement of an “environmental response, energy, and food security tax” with a carbon emissions tax. The bill, introduced by Sen. Russell Ruderman and Sen. Karl Rhoads, would have repealed the state fuel taxes under the fuel tax law and leave the state with as much revenue as it would otherwise have. 
    • Fee system: $6.25 per carbon ton, changing according to department of taxation’s annual recommendation. 
    • Revenue is invested in: pollution removal, clean energy initiatives, renewable energy development, and agricultural development. 
    • Status: Passed through Senate, tabled in House. 

Study Bill Ultimately Defeated in 2019

  • “An Act Relating to Carbon Emissions” (HB 1584) would have appropriated funding to the University of Hawaii to conduct a comprehensive study on the effects of a statewide carbon price. 
    • Status: Passed through the House and two Senate Committees, but tabled by the Senate Committee on Ways and Means on April 4th.

Other Carbon Pricing Bills Tabled in 2019

  • “An Act Relating to a Carbon Tax” (HB 1287), introduced by Rep. Chris Lee and Rep. Amy Perruso. 
    • Fee system: $20 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually until reaching $55 per ton in 2034
    • Revenue:  50% rebated back to taxpayers, 25% to address hazardous waste, and 25% for clean energy initiatives.
    • Status: Referred to Committee on Energy and Environmental as of January 28th, where it died. 
  • “An Act Relating to Statewide Sustainability Initiatives” (HB 1579)
    • Fee system: $15 per ton of carbon (no annual increase) 
    • Revenue: All of the revenue invested in renewable energy development, electric vehicles, adaptation efforts, employment transition, and infrastructure. 
    • Status: Tabled by two House committees on January 28th.

In 2017, Rep. Kaniela Ing introduced “A Bill for an Act Relating to Environmental Protection” (HB 1991), which aimed to price carbon in the state for the first time.

  • Fee system: $10 per carbon ton, increasing annually by $5 until reaching $40 in 2025.
  • Revenue breakdown: 80% for the state general fund and 20% for pollution detection and removal.  
  • Result: Tabled in committee.

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

      • Carbon Costs Coalition: Hawaii Sen. Mike Gabbard is part of a multistate alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

      Emission Reduction Target

      • By 2020: 1990 levels
      • By 2045: 100% below 2018 levels

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2020: 30% clean energy
      • By 2030: 40% clean energy
      • By 2040: 70% clean energy
      • By 2045: 100% clean energy

      Further Reading 

      Key Figures

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      18

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      215

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      15

      Idaho

      Governor Brad Little (R) declared that climate change is real and must be addressed, surprising many. Little said the state is making progress working with state and federal agencies, however, Idaho is far from developing a comprehensive climate action plan.

      In April, the Boise City Council voted to adopt “Boise’s Energy Future” — a plan to consume 100% clean electricity by 2035. Boise is the first and only city in Idaho to adopt this goal. 

      More on Idaho

      2020 Legislation

      • The 2020 Legislative Session convened on January 6th and adjourns on March 27th.

      Political Context

      • Idaho has a Republican state government trifecta. 
      • Republicans have a 56-14 majority in the Idaho House of Representatives, and a 28-7 majority in the State Senate. 
      • Republican Gov. Brad Little surprised many by acknowledging climate change in an address shortly after his inauguration. 

      Constitutional Restraints

      • The Idaho state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target

      • N/A

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Idaho? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      18

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      265

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      22

      Illinois

      The Illinois Pricing Pollution Coalition, comprised of members from the Climate Reality Project and Citizens’ Climate Lobby, is working to introduce a carbon pricing initiative by 2021. The group has been focused on raising awareness and educating the general public on carbon pricing. Decarbonization concept bills have also been introduced in the House and Senate this session. In February 2019, the Illinois Clean Jobs Coalition introduced the Clean Energy Jobs Act (CEJA), which would require 100% carbon-free electricity by 2030 and 100% renewable energy by 2050. The bill is currently in the Assignments Committee in the Senate and the Rules Committee in the House.

      More on Illinois

      2019-2020 Legislation

      The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 9th, 2019, and will wrap up on January 6th, 2021.  

      • On the House side, “An Inter-Agency Report on Decarbonization and Economic Opportunities Act” (HB 2801) was introduced by Rep. Emanuel Chris Welch.
        • Requires several state agencies in Illinois to develop a broad-based policy approach to decarbonizing the state’s electric sector, with the goal of ending polluting power plants in Illinois by 2030 and creating new economic opportunities in the process.
        • Status: Referred to Renewable Initiatives Subcommittee on March 6th. It was re-referred to the House Rules Committee on March 29th.
      • The same bill was introduced in the Senate by Sen. Heather Steans as SB 2020.
        • Status: Passed Senate Committee of Environment and Conservation on March 14th. It had its third reading in the Senate on April 9th and was re-referred to the Committee on Assignments on April 12th.

      Political Context

      • In January 2019, Democratic Gov. J.B. Pritzker issued an executive order joining the  U.S. Climate Alliance, and committing to the goals of the Paris Climate Accord. In his inaugural address, he pointedly said, “I believe in science” and spoke of the threat climate change poses. He hasn’t explicitly advocated for carbon pricing, however. 
      • Democrats have significant majorities in the Senate (40-19) and House (74-44) after enjoying a blue wave in the November midterm elections. 

      Emission Reduction Targets

      • By 2020: 1990 levels
      • By 2050: 60% below 1990 levels 

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2025: 25% clean energy

      Past Legislation

      • N/A

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

      • N/A

      Further Reading

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      204

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      253

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      20

      Indiana

      On September 25th, Governor Eric Holcomb (R) signed a proclamation that declared September 23rd to 27th, 2019 as “Clean Energy Week” in Indiana, becoming the 28th state plus Washington D.C. to formally recognize National Clean Energy Week 2019.

      More on Indiana

      2020 Legislation

      • The 2020 Legislative Session convened on January 6th and adjourns on March 14th.

      Political Context

      • Indiana has a Republican state government trifecta. 
      • Republicans have a 67 to 33 supermajority in the Indiana House of Representatives, and a 40 to 10 supermajority in the State Senate. 
      • Republican Gov. Eric Holcomb did not include environmental issues in his 2019 policy agenda, however, he has focused policy goals on the need to address Indiana’s water infrastructure.

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Indiana state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • N/A

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2025: 10% clean energy

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Indiana? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      182

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      538

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      40

      Iowa

      In 1983, Iowa became the first state in the U.S. to adopt a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) by enacting the Alternative Energy Production law. The Iowa Future Caucus, a bipartisan, bicameral group of four Iowa state legislators, has been exploring ways to grow the state’s renewable energy industry.

      In February 2019, SF 312 was introduced, directing the Iowa Energy Center to develop a strategic plan to achieve a goal of 80% renewable energy by 2030 and 100% by 2050. The bill did not move forward, but Iowa is reportedly on track to achieving the 2030 goal.

      More on Iowa

      2019-2020 Legislation

      • The 2019-2020 Legislative Session convened on January 14th, 2019 and will adjourn on May 29th, 2020

      Political Context

      • Republicans hold a state government trifecta in Iowa. 
      • Republicans have a 54 to 46 majority in the Iowa House of Representatives, and a 32 to 18 majority in the State Senate.
      • Governor Kim Reynolds (R) has no formal environmental policy, and has supported many of Trump’s decisions to decrease federal environmental regulations, specifically on coal production.

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Iowa state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • N/A

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 1990: 105 megawatts of clean energy production

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Iowa? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      73

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      406

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      36

      Kansas

      Governor Laura Kelly (D) acknowledges climate change and has said her efforts will focus on working with the state’s Congressional delegation and other Western governors to find solutions. She has expressed support for more renewable energy use in the state, particularly wind energy. However, carbon pricing might be difficult to pass — Gov. Kelly has stated she will not raise Kansas’ taxes.

      More on Kansas

      2019-2020 Legislation

      • The 2019 Legislative Session convened on January 14th and adjourned on May 29th. 

      Political Context

      • Republicans have an 85-40 supermajority in the Kansas House of Representatives, and a 31-9 supermajority in the State Senate. 
      • Democratic Gov. Laura Kelly was a former executive director of the Kansas Parks and Recreation Association, and has helped expand the state park system as well as supported some other moderate environmental policies. 

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Kansas state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • N/A

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • Starting in 2020: goal of 20% peak energy demand from renewable sources

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      62

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      399

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      35

      Kentucky

      While there has not been a focus on carbon pricing legislation in Kentucky, there have been attempts to increase the state’s renewable energy production. This past session, a bill (HB 213) that would establish renewable portfolio standard (RPS) targets in the state was introduced, with a goal of 2.25% clean energy by 2021 and 12.5% clean energy by 2029. The bill did not make it out of committee.

      More on Kentucky

      2020 Legislation

      • The 2020 Legislative Session convenes on January 7th and adjourns on March 30th. 

      Political Context

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Kentucky state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target

      • N/A

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Kentucky? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      124

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      635

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      44

      Louisiana

      Carbon pricing legislation has not been introduced in the Louisiana legislature. Under the leadership of Governor John Bel Edwards (D), the state is preparing strategies to relocate vulnerable communities from sea level rise and flooding. The Governor recently announced his plan to establish a task force to respond to climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

      More on Louisiana

      2020 Legislation

      • The 2020 Legislative Session convenes on April 9th and adjourns on May 11th.

      Political Context

      • Republicans have a 61-39 majority in the Louisiana House of Representatives, and a 25-24 majority in the State Senate. 
      • Democratic Gov. John Bel Edwards has been very supportive of both the oil and gas industry in his 2020 reelection campaign, but has noted that sea level rise and flooding pose a major risk to Louisiana. He recently stated that “Louisiana will do its part to address climate change,” and called for the creation of a task force to formulate the next steps that the state will take to reduce emissions.

      Past Legislation

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • N/A

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Louisiana? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      209

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      917

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      48

      Maine

      For the first time in Maine history, legislators introduced a carbon fee in the House that has already been co-sponsored by more than 80 legislators. For eight years, Gov. Paul Lepage (R) largely opposed strong climate action, but the election of Gov. Janet Mills (D) has spurred fresh excitement for the carbon pricing movement. The bill was converted into a study bill as part of the Governor’s new council on climate change. 

      On June 26, 2019, Maine passed “An Act To Promote Clean Energy Jobs and To Establish the Maine Climate Council” (LD 1679) with bi-partisan support in the legislature. The Council will be responsible for developing policies to reduce Maine’s carbon emissions by 45% by 2030 and by 80% by 2050. They will be called to submit a state Climate Action Plan by December 1, 2020. Gov. Mills also signed “An Act to Reform Maine’s Renewable Portfolio Standard” (LD 1494) to increase Maine’s RPS to 80% by 2030 and set a goal of 100% clean energy by 2050.

      More on Maine

      2019-2020 Legislation

      The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 2nd, 2019 and will wrap up on April 15th, 2020.

      • “An Act to Price Pollution” (HP 343), introduced by Rep. Deane Rykerson (D), places a fee on carbon emissions and establishes a Carbon Content Assessment Fund that would reduce utility rates for electric consumers. 
        • Fee system: $5 per ton of carbon, increasing by $5 until reaching $40 by 2028. The fee does not apply to the electric sector.  
        • Revenue: 100% of the funds raised are used to reduce utility rates in a way that is “equitable and provides maximum benefit to the economy of the state.”
        • Status: Public hearing occurred on February 28th. On March 7th, the Committee on Energy Utilities and Technology voted not to pass the bill.

      Political Context

      • Democratic Gov. Janet Mills has signaled climate action is a top priority for her administration.  
      • Democrats hold sizable majorities in both the Senate (21-14) and House (89-57). Momentum for carbon pricing has been growing in both chambers. 

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Maine state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Emission Reduction Targets

      • By 2020: 10% below 1990 levels
      • In long-term: 75-80% below 2003 levels 

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2030: 80% clean energy
      • By 2050: a goal of 100% clean energy

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

      • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Maine remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
      • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Maine is a part of TCI, a regional collaboration that seeks to cap emissions from the transportation sector. The state hasn’t officially joined yet, however. 
      • Carbon Costs Coalition: Rep. Rykerson and Rep. Stanley Paige Ziegler are part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      16

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      276

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      23

      Maryland

      For the third session in a row, legislators introduced bills that impose a fee on carbon pollution. Last session’s bill, the Healthy Climate Initiative, progressed in both the House and Senate, earning 30 co-sponsors and sparking conversation and debate on the issue of carbon pricing. Nevertheless, this bill failed to advance out of committee. There is great hope for the new version of the bill. The Chesapeake Climate Action Network, a powerful advocacy organization in the area, has become involved in the campaign and assigned a staff person to the cause.  

      On May 22nd 2019, Governor Larry Hogan (R) allowed the Clean Energy Jobs Act (SB 516) to pass without his signature. The bill increases Maryland’s renewable portfolio standard to 50% by 2030 and sets a goal of 100% clean energy by 2040. The bill expands solar energy requirements and more than doubles the state’s offshore wind target.

      More on Maryland

      2020 Legislation

      The 2020 Legislative Session began on January 8th and wraps up on April 6th.

      • The Climate Crisis and Education Act, HB 1543 was introduced by Del. David Fraser-Hidalgo in the House on February 7th.
        • Fee system: $15 per metric ton on non-transportation greenhouse gas emissions, which would rise $5 each year, to a cap of $60 per metric ton.
          • High polluting vehicles would be charged a separate fee, starting at $400. This fee would increase by $10 for every ton of carbon past 40 tons that the vehicle would emit over 10 years.
        • Revenue Breakdown: 
          • 40% given to low- and moderate- income families
          • 10% goes towards protecting businesses that are energy-intensive 
          • $350 million every year goes directly towards education 
          • The remaining percentage will go towards investing in the transition to clean energy 
        • Status: Status: A hearing took place in the Economic Matters Committee on March 12th, 2020.
      • A companion bill was introduced in the Senate by Sen. Benjamin L. Kramer, SB 0912, on February 3rd, 2020.
        • Status: A hearing took place in the Budget and Taxation Committee on March 11th, 2020.

      Political Context

      • Republican Gov. Hogan is one of 25 governors who has joined the bipartisan U.S. Climate Alliance. Hogan plans to submit his own energy strategy to the General Assembly on the first day of the 2020 legislative session. The Clean and Renewable Energy Standard (CARES) would set Maryland on a path to 100% clean energy by 2040.
      • Democrats currently hold significant majorities in the House (98-43) and Senate (32-15).

      Emission Reduction Targets

      • By 2030: 40% below 2006 levels

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2030: 50% clean energy, including 14.5% solar and adding at least 1,200 MW of offshore wind
      • By 2040: a goal of 100% clean energy

      Past Legislation

      • “An Act Concerning the Healthy Climate Initiative” (HB 1235) was introduced by Delegate Fraser-Hidalgo.
        • Fee System: $20 per ton fee on greenhouse gas emissions that will increase by $5 annually.
        • Revenue Breakdown:
          • 70% rebated to households and employers
            • 85% to households
            • 15% to employers
          • 30% to Healthy Climate Infrastructure Fund, for transportation, energy efficiency, resiliency, and transition efforts. 
        • Status: Introduced to House on February 8th. A hearing was held by the Committee on Economic Matters on March 19th, where it received an unfavorable report.
      • A companion bill (SB 0702) was introduced by Delegate Kramer.
        • Status: Introduced to Senate on February 4th, 2019 and heard by the Senate Finance Committee on March 5th, 2019.
      • “Regional Carbon Cost Collection Initiative” (HB 939) introduced by Delegates Kramer and Fraser-Hidalgo.
        • Fee System: The fee would have started at $15 per carbon ton in 2019, increasing by $5 per ton annually until capping off at $45 in 2025. 
        • Revenue Breakdown: 
          • 90% rebated to households and employers
          • 10% invested in a Green Infrastructure Fund for various climate initiatives
        • Status: Given an unfavorable report by Economic Matters Committee in March 2018.

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

       

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      58

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      150

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      6

      Massachusetts

      Since 2013, Massachusetts legislators have been actively working to place a state-wide fee on carbon pollution. Sen. Michael Barrett and Rep. Jennifer Benson have emerged as key legislative champions in the fight for carbon pricing in Massachusetts. This session, both have introduced carbon pricing bills, one in the House and one in the Senate. The bills have been well-received by state lawmakers, with large majorities in both chambers supporting the carbon pricing bills. Benson’s recent resignation added to the delay in the bill hearing, but its impressive turnout promises substantial progress this legislative session. Recently, the Senate passed three more bills to address climate change, which were further backed by Governor Baker’s pledge of net zero carbon emissions for the state by 2050.

      More on Massachusetts

      2019-2020 Legislation

      The current legislative session began in January 2019 and ends in July 2020. 

      • In the Senate, “An Act Setting Next Generation Climate Policy” (S2500) was passed on January 30th, 2020.
        • The bill opts to let future gubernatorial administrations decide the specific carbon pricing mechanism to be used, but does mandate time limits by when certain sectors need to be covered: transportation by 2022, non-residential buildings by 2025, and residential buildings by 2030.
        • It was introduced and passed in conjunction with bills S2476 and S2478, which focus on energy efficiency standards, 100% electric MBTA buses by 2040, and state-wide vehicle electrification.
        • Status: Introduced January 23, 2020. Over 120 amendments were proposed by January 27, 2020. 33 amendments were approved and the overall bill was passed on January 30, 2020. Referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means on February 10, 2020.
      • Also in the Senate, “An Act to Combat Climate Change” (S1924) has been introduced by Senator Michael Barrett.
        • Fee system: Fee begins at $15 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually until reaching $60 per ton.
        • Revenue breakdown: 
          • 60% invested in Commonwealth Transportation Fund to develop more efficient public transportation infrastructure and clean transportation
          • 30% for educational aid for Massachusetts cities
          • 5% invested in energy efficiency projects
          • 5% invested in an environmental health and justice fund
        • Status: The legislation has 67 cosponsors, with 60% of Senators supporting this bill. Referred to Committee on Telecommunications, Utilities and Energy as of January 22, 2019. Public hearing took place on January 14, 2020. The reporting date for the bill has been set for June 4, 2020.
      • On the House side, “An Act to Promote Green Infrastructure and Reduce Carbon Emissions” (H 2810) has been introduced by Representative Jennifer Benson. 
        • Fee system: Starts at $20 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually until reaching $40 per ton. 
        • Revenue breakdown:
          • 70% rebated to households and employers 
          • 30% for a Green Infrastructure Fund for local transportation, resiliency, and clean energy projects
        • Status: The legislation has 107 cosponsors between both chambers, with 74% of House Democrats supporting this bill. Referred to Committee on Telecommunications, Utilities and Energy as of January 22, 2019. Its public hearing took place on January 14, 2020. The reporting date for the bill has been set for June 4, 2020.

      Political Context

      • Republican Gov. Charlie Baker has put most of his weight behind climate resiliency and adaptation measures to address climate change impacts. He has made no public statements on carbon pricing bills in past legislative sessions, and has been criticized for not taking aggressive enough action against climate change.
      • Democrats hold veto proof super-majorities in the House (125-31) and Senate (34-4)
      • Funding much needed transportation investments across the state has emerged as a key issue this legislative session. Carbon pricing is a strong candidate for transportation revenue.

       

      Emission Reduction Targets

      • By 2020: 25% below 1990 levels
      • By 2050: 80% below 1990 levels 

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2018: 16% clean energy
      • By 2030: 35% clean energy
      • By 2050: 80% clean energy

      Past Legislation

      • On the Senate side, “An Act Combating Climate Change” (S 1821) was introduced by Sen. Barrett in 2017.
        • Fee system: Fee started at $10 per carbon ton, rose by $5 annually until it reached $40 per ton. 
        • Revenue breakdown:
          • Funds rebated back to households, in an equal amount per household. 
          • Funds rebated to employers based on number of employees.
        • Status: Public hearing held June 2017. Released favorably from joint committee in February 2018. Version incorporated into a comprehensive clean energy bill, which passed the Senate unanimously. Comprehensive bill did not receive a vote in the House.
      • On the House side, “An Act to Promote Green Infrastructure, Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Create Jobs” (H 1726) introduced by Rep. Benson in 2017.
        • Fee system: Fee started at $20 per carbon ton, rose by $5 annually until reaching $40 per ton. 
        • Revenue breakdown: 
          • 80% rebated to households and employers using a formula that favors low and moderate income households
          • 20% invested in clean energy
          • Funds rebated to employers based on number of employees.
        • Status: Public hearing held June 2017. Not released from committee for vote in House.

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

      • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Massachusetts remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
      • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Charlie Baker (R) remains committed to joining TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states. 
      • Carbon Costs Coalition: Massachusetts legislators are a part of a multistate alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      64

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      124

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      4

      Michigan

      On December 2nd 2019, Governor Tim Walz issued an executive order to establish a Climate Change Subcabinet, which will determine policies to comply with the state’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets — set by the Next Generation Energy Act of 2007and achieve 100% clean energy by 2050. There will be representation from fifteen state agencies and boards on the Subcabinet, chaired by the Commissioner of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. The order also created an Advisory Council on Climate Change, to advise the Subcabinet on opportunities for climate action.

      During the 2020 session, carbon pricing legislation was introduced in the Minnesota legislature, marking a shift that began after the 2018 midterm elections, where Democrats gained 18 seats in the House.

      More on Michigan

      2020 Legislation

      The 2020 Legislative Session began on January 6th and wraps up on December 31st.

      • On March 11th, SF 4207 was introduced in the Minnesota Senate
        • Fee system: The bill sets the price of carbon $50 per ton of carbon dioxide emitted. This number increases by $5 each year, until it hits a maximum of $200. 
        • Revenue Breakdown: The revenue from the fee can be allocated to a variety of expenditures, including: 
          • pay refunds;
          • make loans to businesses for energy efficiency or renewable energy projects;
          • pay for the cover and tillage credit;
          • pay dividends; and
          • pay rebates.
        • Status: Referred to Energy and Utilities Finance and Policy.
      • A companion bill, HF 4397, has been introduced in the House. 
        • Status: Referred to Energy and Climate Finance and Policy Division.

      Political Context

      • Gov. Gretchen Whitmer (D) has made addressing climate change a priority for her administration, as seen by her bringing Michigan into the US Climate Alliance and by establishing a new office of climate and energy.
      • Republicans currently hold majorities in both the House (58-52) and Senate (22-16).

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Michigan state constitution requires 90% of revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes. 

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Targets 

      • 20% below 2005 levels by 2020
      • 80% reduction below 2005 levels by 2050

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2021: 15% clean energy
      • In 2018, a pro-renewable energy coalition, Clean Energy, Healthy Michigan, launched a ballot initiative to increase the state’s RPS to 30% renewable energy by 2030. In May 2018, the coalition reached an agreement with the state’s two largest utilities committing them to a 50% clean energy standard by 2030.

      Further Reading

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Gov. Gretchen Whitmer

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      152

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      310

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      29

      Minnesota

      While carbon pricing legislation was not introduced this session in Minnesota’s state legislature, the likelihood of future carbon pricing increased after the Democratic party gained 18 seats in the House in the 2018 midterm elections. The effects of this shift have already been manifested—the House established an Energy and Climate Committee, marking the first time in the state’s history that the word “climate” has been used in a committee name.

      On December 2nd 2019, Governor Tim Walz issued an executive order to establish a Climate Change Subcabinet, which will determine policies to comply with the state’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets — set by the Next Generation Energy Act of 2007and achieve 100% clean energy by 2050. There will be representation from fifteen state agencies and boards on the Subcabinet, chaired by the Commissioner of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. The order also created an Advisory Council on Climate Change, to advise the Subcabinet on opportunities for climate action.

      More on Minnesota

      2020 Legislation

      • The 2020 Legislative Session begins on February 11th and wraps up on May 21st.

      Political Context

      • Democratic Gov. Tim Walz supports expanding the renewable energy standard, reducing carbon emissions in all sectors, fighting for energy justice and advocating for tribal rights. He hasn’t explicitly advocated for carbon pricing, but has suggested that an increased gas tax would make a good revenue source. 
      • Republicans have a slight majority in the Senate (34-33), but Democrats now have a significant one in the House (75-59). 

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Minnesota state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Emission Reduction Targets 

      • By 2025: 30% below 2005 levels
      • By 2050: 80% below 2005 levels 

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2025: 26.5% clean energy for investor-owned utilities; 25% clean energy for all other utilities

      Past Legislation

      2018 Session

      • In 2018, the state’s first-ever carbon pricing bill, the “Carbon Assessment and Rebate Act” (SF 4086 / HF 4517), was introduced by Senator John Marty.
        • Fee system: Imposes a $40 per carbon ton 2020 that increases by $5 annually for the first five years, by $10 annually beginning in the sixth year, and by $15 annually beginning in the 12th year. 
        • Revenue breakdown: 100% rebated to individuals on a per capita basis.
          • 100% rebated to individuals on a per capita basis.
        • Result: In May 2018, the proposal was referred to Energy and Utilities Finance and Policy Committee, where it was tabled.

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

      • N/A

      Further Reading 

      Key Figures

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      89

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      264

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      21

      Mississippi

      In June 2019, the Mississippi Public Service Commission created an energy planning framework for how electricity companies will procure power in the future. Commission Chairman Brandon Presley has pushed for long-term plans that incorporate all resources and increase energy efficiency. Clean energy advocates are hopeful that this move will expand renewables, energy efficiency, and storage, and guide the state toward cleaner energy production. Carbon pricing and other climate action has not been supported, however.

      More on Mississippi

      2020 Legislation

      • The 2020 Legislative Session convened on January 7th and adjourns on March 27th. 

      Political Context

      • Republicans hold a state government trifecta in Mississippi. 
      • Republicans hold a 74-48 majority in the Mississippi House of Representatives, and a 31-18 majority in the State Senate.
      • Republican Gov. Tate Reeves, who entered office on January 14, 2020, has expressed doubts over the human contribution to climate change.

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Mississippi state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • N/A

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Mississippi? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      69

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      645

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      45

      Missouri

      Due to high biomass energy production and large increases in wind and solar generation over the past few years, renewable sources provide over 40% of Missouri’s energy generation.  However, carbon pricing has not been introduced and Governor Mike Parson’s administration has not prioritized or supported policies to reduce emissions.

      More on Missouri

      2020 Legislation

      • The 2020 Legislative Session convened on January 8th and will adjourn on May 31st. 

      Political Context

      • There is a Republican state government trifecta in Missouri. 
      • Republicans have a 116-47 supermajority in the Missouri House of Representatives, and a 24-10 supermajority in the State House. 
      • Republican Gov. Mike Parson has not prioritized environmental issues in his administration. 

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Missouri state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • N/A

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2021: 15% clean energy

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Missouri? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      118

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      397

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      34

      Montana

      For the first time in Montana history, legislators have introduced carbon pricing bills in both the House and Senate. While the bills did not pass this session, their introduction demonstrates that even conservative-leaning states are joining the carbon pricing movement. The state also has a ballot initiative to increase renewable electricity generation targets to 80% renewable electricity by 2034, with an interim goal of 52% by 2026. Montana also pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, although this hasn’t been codified into law.

      More on Montana

      2020 Legislation

      • The Montana Legislature does not convene in 2020.

      Political Context

      • Democratic Gov. Steve Bullock has been a strong proponent of climate action, vetoing anti-environmental legislation and speaking frequently about the dangers of climate change. Gov. Bullock has opted not to join the U.S. Climate Alliance, however, and has remained quiet on the issue of carbon pricing. 
      • Gov. Bullock created and named members to the new Montana Climate Solutions Council.
      • Republicans hold firm majorities in Montana’s state Senate (30-20) and House (58-42), which should make passage of legislation difficult. 

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Montana state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • On the House side, “Montana Climate Action Act” (HB 193) was introduced by Rep. Mary Ann Dunwell (D) in 2019, putting a direct fee on carbon pollution for the first time.
        • Fee system: $10 per carbon ton, increasing by $1 annually until pollution levels are in compliance with emission reduction targets
        • Revenue breakdown: 
          • 50% towards the general state fund
          • 20% for disbursement in accordance with state law
          • 10% for climate adaptation efforts
          • 10% to help vulnerable communities transition
          • 10% to address environmental damage caused by pollution, such as by revegetating polluted land or rehabilitating polluted bodies of water. 
        • Result: Failed to make it out of committee and died in process on April 25th. 
      • On the Senate side, a carbon pricing bill was introduced (SB 189) by Sen. Dick Barrett (D). The bill provides more exemptions for public and nonprofit properties, as well as an offset system for major electricity sources.

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2015: 15% clean energy

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

      • N/A

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      30

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      669

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      46

      Nebraska

      A group of University of Nebraska-Lincoln students are working to drive a public conversation around climate change and carbon pricing in a state that has historically been stagnant on climate action. The students, working with Citizens Climate Lobby and Our Climate, have strongly supported and lobbied for “A Bill for an Act Relating to Climate” (LB 283), which would provide the University of Nebraska with $250,000 to develop a comprehensive state climate action plan. Actual carbon pricing legislation, however, is still a ways away.

      More on Nebraska

      2019-2020 Legislation

      • The 2019 Legislative Session convened on January 9th and will adjourn on April 15th, 2020. 

      Political Context

      • Nebraska has a unicameral legislative body, made up of 49 Senators.  Currently, Republicans hold an overwhelming majority in this legislature,  (30-18) with one independent legislator.
      • Governor Pete Ricketts (R) was a strong advocate for the Keystone Pipeline construction, and has historically been unsupportive of environmental initiatives.

      Past Legislation

      • N/A

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

      • N/A

      Further Reading 

      Key Figures

      Emissions by Sector

      Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      49

      Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

      Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

      418

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      38

      Nevada

      Nevada was one of the first states to enact a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 1997. After similar legislation was vetoed by former Gov. Sandoval in 2017, Nevada passed SB358 in April 2019, which raises the state’s RPS to 50% clean energy by 2030 — one of the highest in the country — and sets a goal for 100% carbon-free energy by 2050. Gov. Sisolak signed SB 254 in June, which established greenhouse gas reduction targets of 28% below 2005 levels by 2025 and 45% below by 2030. 

      On November 22, 2019, Gov. Sisolak issued an executive order that calls for state agencies to determine policies and regulations to successfully meet the state’s emissions reduction targets. Among strategies the administration will consider to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are “comprehensive economy-wide or sector-specific programs […] including market-based mechanisms.” For the next year, Nevada’s environmental agencies will identify policy options that comply with the state’s climate policies, and a State Climate Strategy will be presented to the Governor by December 1, 2020.

      More on Nevada

      2020 Legislation

      • The Nevada Legislature does not convene in 2020.

      Political Context

      • Nevada has a Democratic state government trifecta.
      • Democrats hold a 28-13 majority in the Nevada Assembly, and a 13-8 majority in the State Senate. 
      • Democratic Gov. Steve Sisolak joined the U.S. Climate Alliance, committing the state to meet Paris Agreement targets. In 2019, he signed legislation to drastically increase the state’s renewable energy requirements and establish emissions reduction targets.

      Constitutional Challenges

      • The Nevada state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Targets 

      • By 2025: 28% below 2005 levels
      • By 2030: 45% below 2005 levels

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2030: 50% clean energy
      • By 2050: 100% clean energy

      Further Reading 

      Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        37

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        244

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        17

        New Hampshire

        New Hampshire lawmakers introduced carbon pricing legislation for the first time this session. One bill (SB 75) would have mandated a study on the economic impacts of national carbon pricing on the state, while the other (HB 735) proposes directly establishing a fee on carbon pollution.

        On September 24th, the Senate Committee on Science, Technology and Energy had a hearing for HB735, introduced by Representative Lee Oxenham, which served primarily as an educational event for committee members. In late October, the committee passed an amendment to HB735, which now proposes a “carbon cashback” program that will return 100% of the revenue collected to state residents. The revised bill will be considered by the full House in early January.

        More on New Hampshire

        2019–2020 Legislation

        The 2019 Legislative Session began on January 2nd, 2019 and will wrap up in late June, 2020

        • “Establishing a commission to study the economic impact of national carbon pricing in New Hampshire” (SB 75), was introduced by Sen. Martha Fuller Clark. 
          • Status: The bill was heard by the Senate Committee on Energy and National Resources on March 19th and was subsequently re-referred to the Committee on March 27th. The bill was referred to interim study on November 20th, which will result in a committee report in 2020.
        • “An act establishing a carbon cashback fee collection and distribution program administered by the Department of Environmental Services” (HB 735) was introduced by Rep. Oxenham, Sen. Fuller Clark and Sen. David Watters.
            • Fee system: Imposes a $20 per carbon ton fee, which increases by $10 annually through 2030.
            • Revenue breakdown:
              • 100% rebated equally to state residents
          • Status: Referred to Joint Committee on Science, Technology, and Energy for a January 30th public hearing. The bill was subsequently retained. A subcommittee was appointed and revised the bill during four work sessions. In October, an amendment was passed to change the bill to rebate 100% of the revenue, instead of 70% in the bill’s previous version. The revised bill will be considered by the full House in January.

        Political Context

        • Governor Chris Sununu (R), who has questioned if carbon is the leading cause for global warming and supported Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, will likely oppose proposed carbon pricing legislation. 
        • Democrats hold majorities in the Senate (14-10) and House (234-166).

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The New Hampshire state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Emission Reduction Targets

        • 20% below 1990 levels by 2025
        • 80% below 1990 levels by 2050

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2025: 25.2% clean energy

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: New Hampshire remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states. 
        • Carbon Costs Coalition: New Hampshire legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

        Past Legislation

        • In 2017, Senate Bill 123/House Bill 1230 aimed to establish a commission to study the potential impacts of state-level carbon pricing on New Hampshire’s economy and emission levels.
          • Result: Passed through Senate but died in the House.

        Further Reading

        Key Figures 

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        14

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        175

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        9

        New Jersey

        Nearly eight years since Republican Gov. Chris Christie pulled New Jersey out of RGGI, the state is rejoining the cap-and-trade initiative. Democratic Gov. Phil Murphy announced the return in January 2018, and in June 2019 the Department of Environmental Quality approved two rules that enable the state’s participation in RGGI starting in the first auction of 2020.

        At the same time, a Princeton student group, the New Jersey Student Climate Advocates, are actively working on developing a “carbon cashback” policy that would rebate revenue from a fee on carbon pollution back to households. The students have received a revised draft of their bill from the Office of Legislative Services and are working on revisions, stakeholder outreach, and coalition building. New Jersey has developed an Energy Master Plan that aims to get the state on a path to 100% clean energy by 2050.

        On October 29th, Murphy issued an executive order to establish a Statewide Climate Change Resilience Strategy. The order establishes a Climate and Flood Resilience Program within the Department of Environmental Protection, as well as an Interagency Council on Climate Resilience that will develop short- and long-term resilience and climate action plans.

        More on New Jersey

        2020–2021 Legislation 

        • The 2020-2021 Legislative Session began on January 14th, 2020 and will end on January 11th, 2022.

        Political Context

        • Democratic Gov. Phil Murphy is undoubtedly more supportive of strong climate policy than his predecessor, Gov. Christie. Gov. Murphy has set ambitious clean energy goals for the state, requiring that more than 1.5 million New Jersey homes must be powered by offshore windmills by 2030, and 100% of New Jersey must be powered by clean energy by 2050. Murphy’s first year in office was praised by most environmental groups, although some worry he has focused too much on electricity and not enough on other emission-intensive sectors, like transportation. 
        • Democrats hold firm majorities in both the Senate (25-15) and House (52-28).
        • New Jersey is swimming in debt, so fiscal responsibility is imperative moving forward. 

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The New Jersey state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Emission Reduction Targets 

        • By 2020: 1990 levels
        • By 2050: 80% below 2006 levels  

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2050: 100% clean energy

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A 

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: New Jersey has rejoined as a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
        • Transportation and Climate Initiative: In December 2018, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states.

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        111

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        191

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        13

        New Mexico

        On January 29, 2019, Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) signed an executive order committing New Mexico to critical climate action. As a result, the state will join the U.S. Climate Alliance and form an Interagency Climate Change Task Force required to create an extensive climate strategy. This strategy must include a “comprehensive market-based program that sets emission limits across New Mexico”, among various other measures.  On November 21st, 2019, the Task Force released a report outlining emissions reduction policies, including implementing a cap-and-trade program. The Task Force will report their progress in September 2020, which will outline more detailed policy proposals for the program.

        Advocates are also looking at a transportation-sector carbon fee for the 2020 legislative session.

        More on New Mexico

        2020 Legislation 

        The 2020 Legislative Session began on January 21st and will wrap up on February 20th.

        • HB173 was introduced by Rep. McQueen on January 21st, which imposes a gasoline surtax and a fuel excise surtax

         

          • Fee System: Begins at 10 cents a gallon which increases 5 cents a year until it reaches 30 cents 
            • This is the same price for gasoline and diesel 
          • Revenue Breakdown: 
            • ⅓ goes towards the state road fund 
            • ⅓ goes towards the clean energy infrastructure fund 
            • ⅓ goes towards rebates for low-income households 
          • Status: House Taxation & Revenue Committee

        Political Context

        • Democratic Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham campaigned on the promise of strong climate action, and signed a decisive executive order in her first month in office. 
        • Democrats hold sizable majorities in both the Senate (26-16) and House (46-24). 

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The New Mexico state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Emission Reduction Targets

        • By 2030: 45% below 2005 levels 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        Senate Bill 489: An Energy Transition Act, drastically increases New Mexico’s commitment to clean energy from 20% by 2020 to 100% by 2050, with intermittent goals. On January 29, 2020, the New Mexico Supreme Court ruled that ETA applies to plans for closing and recovering investments from the San Juan Generating Station;  the the Public Regulation Commission had been at odds with the Governor, legislators, and environmental community about whether the ETA applied to these plans since they preceded the bill. 

        • By 2030: 50% clean energy
        • By 2040: 80% clean energy
        • By 2045: 100% clean energy for investor-owned utilities
        • By 2050: 100% clean energy for cooperative utilities

        Past Legislation

        • In 2018, “A Study of Carbon Fee and Dividend Legislation” (SM 23) was passed by Senate, mandating a legislative committee to study how a revenue-neutral carbon fee could be implemented in the state, and what impacts it would have on health, the economy, and greenhouse gas emissions. 
        • In 2019, Sen. William Soules introduced the “Next Gen Carbon Emission Pricing Plan” (SB 393), which would have expanded upon existing gas tax structures to put a price on all greenhouse gas emissions. 
          • Fee System: Imposes a $0.09 fee per gallon of gasoline, which increases by $0.09 annually until capping off at $0.45 per gallon in 2024. 
          • Revenue breakdown:
            • 15% to low-income home energy assistance
            • 15% to renewable energy technology fund
            • 10% to displaced fossil fuel workers
          • Result: Referred to the Senate Corporations and Transportation Committee on January 29th. Failed to make it out of committee.

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        48

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        532

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        41

        New York

        The New York legislature passed the Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act (CCPA) on June 19, 2019, which calls for the entire state’s economy to achieve an 85% reduction in emissions from 1990 levels by 2050, with offsets for the remaining 15% to achieve net zero emissions. The bill does not put a direct price on emissions, but legislators and advocates, led by the broad New York Renews coalition, are pushing for another statewide climate initiative—the Climate and Community Investment Act (CCIA)—which imposes a fee on carbon pollution. At the same time, two carbon pricing bills from previous sessions have been reintroduced in the House.

        More on New York

        2019-2020 Legislation

        The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 9th and will end on January 6th, 2021. 

        • An ambitious carbon pricing bill that has been introduced for several sessions now (A00039), was once again sponsored by Assemblymember Kevin A. Cahill.
          • Fee system: $35 per carbon ton, increasing by $15 annually until reaching $185 per ton.  
          • Revenue breakdown:
            • 60% rebated to low- and moderate-income households
            • 40% invested in clean energy and transportation infrastructure 
          • Status: Referred to Ways and Means Committee in January with more than 20 co-sponsors, but has not received a hearing. 
        • Assemblymember Cahill also introduced A09856 on February 20th. 
          • Fee System: Imposes a fee on carbon-based fuel sold, used, or bought in the state that will be determined  by the commissioner in consultation with the commissioner of environmental conservation.
          • Revenue Breakdown: 
            • 40% will go to the environmental justice office
            • 20% will go towards the maintenance of the New York state Title V emissions inventory
            • 20% will go toward improving air quality  monitoring
            • 20% will be allocated by the discretion of the commissioner 
          • Status: Introduced February 20th. 
        • A more modest carbon pricing bill (A03459) has been introduced by Assemblymember Felix Ortiz. This legislation is also a repeat from previous sessions. 
          • Fee: $5 per carbon ton, increasing by 1% annually for the first 10 years, plus the rate of inflation. 
          • Revenue breakdown: All revenue goes to a Carbon Tax Revenue Fund, with revenue appropriated by the legislature.  
          • Status: Referred to Ways and Means Committee in January, but has not received a hearing. 
        • The CCIA has been introduced in both the Assembly (A3876) and the Senate (S2992).
          • This bill sets a goal to reduce 100% of emissions by 2050 in the state, partly through putting a price on carbon
          • Fee system: The bill establishes The New York State Climate Action Council, which will determine the plan to reach the reduction target. This council will choose the type of carbon price that will go into effect in the state 
          • Revenue breakdown: The fee is projected to generate about $7 billion in revenue every year for the first ten years.
            • 30% of revenue is dedicated to Climate Jobs and Infrastructure 
            • 33% will go to the Climate Just Transition Fund, which targets investments for disadvantaged communities  
            • 7% is dedicated to the Worker and Community Assurance Fund 
            • 30% will go to the New York Energy Rebate Fund
          • Status: In Committee in both the Assembly and the Senate
        • In the Senate, Senator Parker introduced S03608, a bill identical to A00039 in the House.
          • Status: Referred to Budget and Revenue Committee as of February 11th. It is currently supported by the majority of the Senate, with 35 out of 63 Senators co-sponsoring the bill.

        Political Context

        • Governor Andrew Cuomo (D) has been a proponent of carbon pricing and strong climate action. He’s called for the passage of a ‘Green New Deal’ that mandates the electric sector be 100% carbon-free by 2040, and the establishment of a council that evaluate policies to eliminate emissions across the state. Gov. Cuomo has also set a bold emission reduction target: 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. 
        • Democrats hold firm majorities in the Senate (40-23) and Assembly (107-43)

        Emission Reduction Targets

        • By 2030: 40% below 1990 levels
        • By 2050: 85% below 1990 levels (with offsets accounting for the remaining 15%) 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2030: 70% clean energy
        • By 2040: 100% clean energy

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: New York is a committed member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
        • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Cuomo has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 
        • Carbon Costs Coalition: Several Connecticut legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

        Past Legislation

        2017-2018 Session

        • The Climate and Community Investment Act (S7645) was introduced by Sen. Parker. 
          • Fee system: $35 per carbon ton, increasing with inflation.  
          • Revenue breakdown:
            • 33% to provide  targeted investments for disadvantaged communities 
            • 30% to fund large-scale and multi-region emission reduction projects 
            • 30% rebated to low and middle-income New Yorkers via tax credits
            • 7% to displaced fossil fuel workers 
          • Result: Failed in committee after gaining 12 sponsors 
        • Assemblywoman Barbara Lifton and Sen. Liz Krueger sponsored a bill (SB 4598/A01919) authorizing a study on implementing carbon emissions fee. 
          • Result: Failed in committee
        • Senate and Assembly introduced identical bills to “establish a tax on carbon-based fuels.” The Senate bill (S02846) was sponsored by Sen. Parker, while the Assembly bill (A0107) was sponsored by Assemblymember Cahill. 
          • Fee system: $35 per carbon ton, increasing by $15 annually until reaching $185 per ton.  
          • Revenue breakdown:
            • 60% rebated to low and moderate income households
            • 40% invested in clean energy and transportation infrastructure 
          • Result: Failed in committee (but reintroduced this session)
        • Assemblymember Felix Ortiz introduced A03967
          • Fee: $5 per carbon ton, increasing by 1% annually for the first 10 years, plus the rate of inflation. 
          • Revenue breakdown: All goes to Carbon Tax Revenue Fund, with revenue appropriated by the legislature.  
          • Result: Failed in committee (but reintroduced this session) 

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        164

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        106

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        2

        North Carolina

        Carbon pricing is being discussed by the North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality as part of the Clean Energy Plan stakeholder process, as a policy recommendation for the administration to carry out. North Carolina legislators are also looking at introducing carbon fee legislation in the 2020 legislative session.

        A study conducted by Resources for the Future found significant potential for North Carolina to reduce its electric sector carbon emissions in a program that links with the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative.

        More on North Carolina

        2020 Legislation 

        • The 2020 Legislative session convenes on April 28th and will most likely wrap up on July 1, 2020.

        Political Context

        • Republicans currently hold the majority in both the House (65-55) and Senate (29-21), though they lost their supermajorities in each chamber in the 2018 elections.
        • Gov. Roy Cooper (D) is supportive of environmental goals, and issued an executive order establishing the Climate Change Interagency Council and emission reduction goals. 

        Emission Reduction Targets

        • By 2025: Greater than 40% below 2005 levels 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2021: 12.5% clean energy

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • N/A

        Further Reading

        • Not yet available

        Key Figures

        • Gov. Roy Cooper 
        • Sen. Wiley Nickel

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        121

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        233

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        16

        North Dakota

        North Dakota is among the top 10 coal and crude oil-producing states in the country, and Governor Doug Burgum (R) supports expanding the state’s energy production. In September, the US Department of Energy awarded almost $10 million to help fund an engineering study for Project Tundra, an initiative to build the world’s largest carbon capture and storage facility. Burgum said that this project, “gives North Dakota the opportunity to reduce emissions and boost energy production.”

        North Dakota has a voluntary RPS goal of producing 10% of all electricity from renewable sources. Carbon pricing and other forms of climate action have not been endorsed by members of the Legislature or Governor, however.

        More on North Dakota

        2020 Legislation

        • The North Dakota Legislature does not convene in 2020.

        Political Context

        • North Dakota has a Republican state government trifecta. 
        • Republicans have a 79-15 supermajority in the North Dakota House of Representatives, and a 37-10 supermajority in the State Senate. 
        • Republican Gov. Doug Burgum has not prioritized environmental issues, stating that “innovation—not regulation—solves oil & gas challenges.” 

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The North Dakota state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target 

        • N/A

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Target

        • By 2015: goal of 10% clean energy

        Further Reading

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in North Dakota? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        54

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        1,069

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        49

        Ohio

        Although Gov. Mike DeWine (R) said, “it’s important for the state of Ohio to be able to have a significant amount of energy that is created to be carbon free…” he has not prioritized policies to reduce emissions or promote renewable energy generation.

        In July 2019, the Ohio legislature passed a bill (HB 6) decreasing its RPS from 12.5% by 2026 to 8.5% by 2026, and completely ends the standard after 2026. Ohio is the first state in the past decade to reduce or repeal its RPS target since Kansas repealed its RPS in 2009. HB 6 also increases monthly utility bills by $0.85 to subsidize coal and nuclear energy generation.

        More on Ohio

        2019-2020 Legislation

        • The 2019-2020 Legislative Session convened on January 7th, 2019 and will adjourn on December 31st, 2020.

        Political Context

        • Ohio has a Republican state government trifecta.
        • Republicans hold a 61-38 majority in the Ohio House of Representatives, and a 24-9 majority in the State Senate. 
        • Republican Gov. Mike DeWine opposed the Clean Power Plan and has not demonstrated environmental leadership in office.

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The Ohio state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target 

        • N/A

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2026: 8.5%

        Further Reading 

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Ohio? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        206

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        332

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        30

        Oklahoma

        Oklahoma is the nation’s third-largest producer of wind power, and utilities are seeking to expand wind and solar energy — although coal and natural gas are the state’s primary fuels for electricity generation.

        State-level action to reduce emissions is unlikely in the near future, however, local communities are leading the transition to clean energy. Rural electric cooperatives have been expanding wind and solar energy production. In May 2018, Norman became the first and only Oklahoma municipality to commit to 100% clean energy. The city has a goal of 100% clean electricity by 2035 and across all sectors, including heat and transportation, by 2050.

        More on Oklahoma

        2019-2020 Legislation

        • The 2019-2020 Legislative Session convened on February 4th, 2019 and adjourned on May 25th, 2020.

        Political Context

        • Oklahoma has a Republican state government trifecta. 
        • Republicans hold a 77-24 supermajority in the Oklahoma House of Representatives, and a 39-9 supermajority in the State Senate. 
        • Republican Gov. Kevin Stitt has not prioritized environmental issues in his administration. 

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target 

        • N/A

        Further Reading 

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Oklahoma? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        97

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        543

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        42

        Oregon

        Oregon’s highly-anticipated cap-and-invest Clean Energy Jobs bill (HB 2020) was reintroduced during the 2019 legislative session, after receiving support from Gov. Kate Brown (D), House Speaker Tina Kotek (D), and Senate President Peter Courtney (D). The bill looked like it had a lot of momentum after passing the House on June 17th, but it failed to receive a final vote in the Senate in the wake of the Republican walk-out.

        More on Oregon

        On Monday, January 13th, democratic lawmakers unveiled a revised version of this cap-and-invest bill (SB 1530). This new version includes a strong cap on statewide carbon emissions from the transportation, utility and industrial sectors just as House Bill 2020 did, but also takes measures to lessen the burden on rural, low-income households. Legislators hoped for this bill to make quick progress in the 35 day legislative session that began February 3rd, but Republican representatives again fled the capitol and refused to vote. Although cap-and-invest did not pass through the legislature once again, Gov. Brown has secured emergency funding to create a carbon-cutting plan through Executive Order 20-04, which she announced on March 10th, that includes emissions reductions targets that decrease over time, which the Environmental Quality Commission has the power to enforce through a cap and trade program. The legislature allocated $5 million to the Governor to complete this plan.

        In October 2019, Renew Oregon, along with a group of other organizations, formed the Oregonians for Clean Air coalition and introduced three ballot measures. The initiatives include aspects of the Clean Energy Jobs bill, and aim to establish strict limits on greenhouse gas emissions and move to 100% clean energy within the next few decades. The first initiative, called the 100% Clean Economy Initiative, would establish stricter emission reduction targets, requiring the state to reduce emissions 50% below 1990 levels by 2035 and be 100% carbon-free by 2050. This initiative would give the Environmental Quality Commission the responsibility to create a program to achieve these goals, and advocates are hopeful this program would resemble the cap-and-invest policy proposed in HB 2020. The second initiative, 100% Clean Electricity,  would require 100% clean and carbon-free electricity by 2045. The third, 100% Clean + Electrify Everything, would also require electricity to be carbon-free by 2045, and the petition would also require utilities to invest in clean energy measures to power homes, businesses, vehicles and operations with 100% clean electricity. Advocates will spend the coming months collecting signatures — they have until early July to get 112,000 signatures to get the initiatives on the ballot for a vote.

        Several other climate policies were introduced this session that would complement carbon pricing legislation and help move Oregon forward with positive climate action:

        • Social Cost of Carbon (HB 4027)
        • Regulating Hydrofluorocarbons (HB 4024)
        • Limits on Fossil Fuel Infrastructure (HB 4105)

        2019 Legislation

        The 2020 Legislative Session begins on February 3rd and will wrap up on March 7th.

        • Senate Bill 1530 was introduced in the Senate on February 3rd, sponsored by Senators Roblan, Dembrow, Beyer, Taylor, that sets up a cap-and-trade system for Oregon. 
          • Fee system: The bill sets a cap on allowances that decreases every year in line with emissions goals, allocated by The Office of Greenhouse Gas Regulation. 
          • Revenue system: Revenue is distributed to both the Transportation Decarbonization Investments Account and the Common School Fund
          • Status: The bill did not receive a vote due to the Republican walkout.

        Political Context

        • Democratic Gov. Kate Brown has championed and prioritized the legislation. After the Republican walkout prevented HB 2020 from passing, Brown was exploring executive action to pass climate legislation this session, but since then she has not addressed the policy.
        • After the midterm elections, Democrats hold supermajorities in both the Senate (12-9) and House (26-15). Furthermore, Speaker of the House Tina Kotek (D) and President of the Senate Peter Courtney (D) are committed to the passage of the legislation this session, co-chairing a Joint Committee on Carbon Reduction that has been studying the carbon pricing bill for nearly a year.

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The Oregon state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Emission Reduction Targets

        • 45% below 1990 levels by 2035 
        • 80% below 1990 levels by 2050

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2040: 50% clean energy

        Past Legislation

        For a comprehensive history of carbon pricing in Oregon, read here

        • 2009: Cap-and-trade (SB 80) introduced in Oregon for the first time by Governor Ted Kulongoski. While the bill never makes it out of committee, it continues to be introduced in subsequent sessions. 
        • 2011: Two carbon pricing bills and one greenhouse gas fee bill are introduced.
        • 2013: A bipartisan carbon tax study bill (SB 306) passes, making Oregon the first state to thoroughly study state-level carbon pricing in the U.S. 
        • 2015: Three carbon pricing bills are introduced but don’t make it through committee:
          • HB 3470: The Climate Stability and Justice Act enforces Oregon’s climate goals and requires the state to develop “market-based compliance mechanisms that sources may use to maximize feasible and cost-effective reductions of greenhouse gas emissions.” 
          • HB 3252:  Imposes a $60 fee per carbon ton, with revenue going toward job creation, economic assistance, and transition assistance for low income homes. 
          • HB 3250: Cap-and-dividend bill that places legal limits on pollution, creates auctions, and rebates revenues back to taxpayers. 
        • 2016: The Healthy Climate Act (SB 1574) is introduced, a cap-and-invest bill. 
        • 2017: Clean Energy Jobs (SB 1070) is introduced for the first time, receiving 33 co-sponsors. 
        • 2018: Clean Energy Jobs (HB 4001 / SB 1507) introduced once again, and is widely considered a very detailed and refined piece of carbon pricing legislation. 
        • 2019: Clean Energy Jobs (HB 2020) was introduced for a third session and passed the House on June 17th. The bill was ultimately defeated after a Republican walk-out prevented a final vote in the Senate.

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • Carbon Costs Coalition: Oregon legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        38

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        176

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        10

        Pennsylvania

        On October 3rd, 2019, Governor Tom Wolf (D) issued an executive order instructing the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), making Pennsylvania the first major fossil-fuel producing state to join the program. The DEP will develop and present a proposal to “abate, control, or limit carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel fired electric power generators” to comply with RGGI by July 31, 2020. Pennsylvania is expected to join the program starting in 2022. Although the state’s Air Pollution Control Act gives the DEP authority to regulate pollution from power plants, members of the Legislature have introduced bills (HB2025/SB950) that, if passed, would require legislative approval before the state can join RGGI.

        More on Pennsylvania

        In late November 2018, a coalition of more than 60 environmental, health and religious groups filed a petition to pass a cap-and-trade program. Though a similar petition was rejected by the Environmental Quality Board in 2014, Pennsylvania’s Clean Air Council believes the state is uniquely positioned to pass strong climate legislation considering the strength of its Environmental Rights Amendment. The amendment, a part of the constitution’s “Declaration of Rights,” guarantees that people have a right to clean air, pure water and the preservation of the natural, scenic, historic and esthetic values of the environment. 

        On April 14th, 2019, the EQB voted to accept the petition for further study, and the Department of Environmental Protection can now take a deeper look at the petition and make recommendations. The DEP announced that it will partner with outside consultants to model the economic impacts of an economy-wide carbon market, as well as a legal analysis of the petition. The Department is set to submit a report early this year. 

        2019-2020 Legislation 

        • The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 1, 2019 and ends on November 30, 2020.  

        Political Context

        • For the first time, Democratic Governor Tom Wolf has set strong carbon reduction goals for the state. 
        • Republicans hold slight majorities in Senate (29-21) and House (110-93), which would make enacting carbon pricing through legislative means difficult. 
        • Pennsylvania’s DEP is looking into implementing a carbon market via regulatory means instead of through the legislature.

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The Pennsylvania state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Emission Reduction Targets

        • By 2025: 26% below 2005 levels
        • By 2050: 80% below 2005 levels 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2020-2021: 18% clean energy

        Past Legislation

        • In the 2017-2018 legislative session, SB 15 was introduced by Sen. Jay Costa, calling for cost-effective emission reductions and for the state’s Environmental Quality Board to develop new emission regulations. 
          • One of the proposed regulations are “market-based mechanisms, such as the imposition of emissions caps and a system for the purchase, redemption and trading of carbon dioxide allowances that represents units of emissions.” 
          • Status: The bill gained 13 sponsors, but was tabled in the Environmental Resources and Energy Committee. 

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

        • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Wolf (D) announced plans to join RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states.
        • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Wolf has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        217

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        300

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        25

        Rhode Island

        On January 17th, Governor Raimondo signed an executive order that mandates Rhode Island achieve 100% renewable electricity by 2030, the most ambitious 10-year energy target that currently exists in the U.S. This executive order will authorize a report conducted by the Office of Energy Resources to be finished by the end of 2020 to analyze the state’s economy and economic sector, and determine a comprehensive plan to reach the 2030 target.

        However, this goal has yet to be codified, and at the moment the Rhode Island House is still considering  bill H7399, which would reduce emissions by 100% by 2050. While Rhode Island already has this goal set by the Resilient Rhode Island Act of 2014, H7399 would make this target enforceable. The bill has met some resistance by conservative lawmakers, and currently is in the House Environment and Natural Resources committee.

        A carbon pricing study signed into law two years ago (S108/H6305) finally received funding from settlement money the state received from the Volkswagen emissions scandal. The study began in mid-October 2019 and is expected to be completed in late spring 2020 after a period of public input and revisions. The report will consider state-level and New England-wide carbon pricing programs for the transportation and heating sectors designed to achieve Rhode Island’s emission reduction goals.

        More on Rhode Island

        2020 Legislation

        The 2020 Legislative Session began on January 7th and will wrap up on June 30th.

        • In January 2020, SB 2108 was introduced in the Senate. 
          • Fee system: The fee begins at $15.00 per metric ton of carbon dioxide, and will increase by $5.00 until it reaches $50.00 per ton, where it will then increase with general inflation costs. 
          • Revenue: Collected revenue will be given to a Economic and Climate Resilience Fund, which gives funding to a variety of different measures
            • 28% will go towards climate resilience, renewable energy, energy efficiency, climate adaptation and low carbon transition initiatives;
              • ⅓ of that will be distributed to areas that are within the lowest ⅓ of median incomes for all state municipalities; 
            • 30% will go towards direct dividends to employers in the state;
            • 40% will go towards direct dividends to state residents;
            • And up to 2% would be for administrative costs. 
          • Status: In Senate Environment and Agriculture.

        Political Context

        • Democratic Gov. Gina Raimondo has supported carbon pricing in the past, but stated in October 2018 that the state is too small to adopt its own program.
        • Democrats have overwhelming majorities in the Senate (33-5) and House (66-9).

        Emission Reduction Targets

        • By 2020: 10% below 1990 levels
        • By 2035: 45% below 1990 levels
        • By 2050: 80% below 1990 levels 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2019: 14.5% clean energy
        • By 2035: 38.5% clean energy

        Past Legislation

        • 2015: Carbon Pricing and Economic Development Investment Act (S 0417) introduced by coalition of experts.
          • Fee system: $15 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually 
          • Revenue: 100% invested in Clean Energy Fund, which can be used for any of the following:
            • Direct rebates to residents and employers
            • Administrative costs
            • Investing in wind, solar, energy storage, and energy efficiency
            • Investing in public transportation 
          • Result: Died in committee 
        • 2017: Carbon tax study approved (S 108/H 6305), but does not provide for funding. 
        • 2018: Two carbon pricing bills introduced 
          • Economic and Climate Resilience Act (H 7400/S 2188)
            • Fee system: $15 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually until reaching $50 per ton. 
            • Revenue: Bill expected to raise $150 million in first year, and about $50 million more in each succeeding year. 
              • 40% rebated to state residents
              • 30% rebated to employers
              • 28% invested in climate resiliency, renewable energy, and efficiency programs
              • 2% for program administration 
            • Includes a “trigger clause”, so that the legislation would only take effect if a neighboring state with a population of at least 5 million people adopts a similar policy. 
            • Result: Died in committee 
          • Global Warming Solutions Act (H7827 / S2747
            • Fee system: $25 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually  
            • Revenue: Rebated back to residents
            • Result: Died in committee 
        • 2019: Economic and Climate Resilience Act of 2019 (HB 5869) introduced in the House by Rep. David Bennett
          • Fee System: Starts at $15 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually until reaching $50 per ton, after which it will increase annually with inflation.
          • Revenue will be invested into a new Economic and Climate Resilience Fund, to the following: 
            • 28% to support renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate adaptation efforts.
              • At least a third must go to households whose median income falls in the lowest third of state median incomes.
            • 30% rebated to employers.
            • 40% rebated to residents.
            • 2% to cover administration costs.

        Result: Died in committee

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Rhode Island remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
        • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Gina Raimondo (D) has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 
        • Carbon Costs Coalition: Rhode Island legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        10

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        169

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        8

        South Carolina

        In May 2019, South Carolina passed the Energy Freedom Act, which encourages a more resilient, clean energy future by supporting solar affordability and battery storage technology. The legislation changes previous policies and programs that had restricted renewable energy growth and creates pathways to increase renewable energy production in the state. 

        South Carolina is one of 30 states to have a Renewable Portfolio Standard target, however it is an extremely low target of 2% clean energy by 2021.

        More on South Carolina

        2019-2020 Legislation

        • The 2019-2020 Legislative Session convened on January 8th, 2019 and will adjourn on June 8th, 2020.

        Political Context

        • South Carolina has a Republican state government trifecta. 
        • Republicans hold an 80-44 majority in the South Carolina House of Representatives, and a 27-19 majority in the State Senate. 
        • Republican Gov. Henry McMaster supported President Trump’s decision to abandon the Paris Agreement.

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target 

        • N/A

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2021: 2% clean energy

        Further Reading 

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in South Carolina? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        72

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        337

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        31

        South Dakota

        South Dakota has been rapidly expanding wind energy throughout the state. Lawmakers passed a measure to reduce the state tax on wind production by about one-third per kilowatt of energy produced. Between June 2018 and July 2019, eight major wind energy projects were approved, projected to bring 700 more wind turbines and an investment of $2.6 billion in the state by 2020. Another two projects currently under review would bring that up to almost 900 total new turbines and an investment of $3.3 billion by energy companies.

        More on South Dakota

        2020 Legislation

        • The 2020 Legislative Session convened on January 14th and will adjourn on March 30th.  

        Political Context

        • South Dakota has a Republican state government trifecta. 
        • Republicans hold a 59-11 supermajority in the South Dakota House of Representatives, and a 30-5 supermajority in the State Senate. 
        • Republican Gov. Kristi Noem supported the Keystone XL pipeline and offshore drilling projects, and opposes ending tax breaks for oil companies. 

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The South Dakota state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target 

        • N/A

        Further Reading 

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in South Dakota? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        15

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        309

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        28

        Tennessee

        For the first time, Tennessee has introduced carbon pricing legislation this session to combat increasing air pollution rates in the state.

        The City of Knoxville’s Energy and Sustainability Initiative has demonstrated leadership by establishing emission reduction targets; the initiative aims to reduce emissions within city operations and the community at large by 20% by 2020, 50% by 2030 and 80% by 2050 relative to 2005 levels.

        In 2017, the Tennessee Energy Policy Council was established (HB 0438/SB 1250) to create a comprehensive plan for the state’s energy production. The Council has not focused on expanding renewable production or reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants.

        More on Tennessee

        2019-2020 Legislation

        The 2019-2020 Legislative Session convened on January 8th, 2019 and will adjourn on April 24th, 2020.

        • In the House, HB 2593 was introduced on February 6th by Representative Vincent Dixie
          • Fee system: The bill sets a $10.00 per metric ton on carbon dioxide emissions in excess of 500,000 metric tons produced from burning natural gas and coal to produce electricity
          • Revenue system: 
            • 60% is given to the general fund which covers all state finances;
            • 40% is given to the municipality or county where the taxpayer’s principal place of business is located
          • Status: Filed for introduction
        • An identical bill, SB 2410, has been introduced in the Senate by Senator Katrina Robinson
          • Status: Filed for introduction

        Political Context

        • Tennessee has a Republican state government trifecta. 
        • Republicans hold a 73-26 supermajority in the Tennessee House of Representatives, and a 28-5 supermajority in the State Senate. 
        • Republican Gov. Bill Lee has expressed uncertainty about the causes of climate change.  

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target 

        • N/A

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • N/A

        Further Reading 

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Tennessee? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        103

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        308

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        27

        Texas

        Texas is far and away the highest carbon-emitting state in the U.S. The state produced 657 million tons of carbon in 2016, 5% higher than the year before and nearly twice as much as California, the second-biggest polluter. It’s also one of the most at-risk states, prone to extreme heat, drought and wildfires. Although it’s one of the most ideologically conservative states in the country, climate advocates are trying to pass a state environmental initiative that’s not quite as far along as carbon pricing, but nonetheless recognizes the impacts of a changing climate and expresses commitment to reducing emissions. Additionally, two carbon pricing bills were introduced in the House in 2019, although neither gained much support.

        More on Texas

        2020 Legislation 

        • The Texas Legislature does not convene in 2020.

        Political Context

        • Republican Gov. Greg Abbott has regularly opposed strong climate policy. He supported the appointment of Scott Pruitt to head the EPA, and maintains that though the Earth’s climate is changing, it’s unclear if humans play a significant role. 
        • Significant Republican majorities in both the Senate (19-12) and House (83-27) make advancing strong climate policy difficult. 

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The Texas state constitution requires 75% of revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes. The remaining 25% must go towards public education funding.

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2015: 5,880 MW clean energy
        • By 2025: 10,000 MW clean energy

        Past Legislation 

        • 2017: HB 3175, authorizing a greenhouse gas emissions fee, was introduced by Rep. Reynolds in the House.
          • Fee system: $5 per carbon ton, commission can provide for an automatic annual increase 
          • Revenue: Invested in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Fee account
            • At least 50% invested in a grant program for utilities to help them with the transition 
            • At least 10% invested in a low-income energy efficiency program that offers assistance to electric consumers who meet one of the following criteria:
              • Have a household income less than 125% of the federal poverty guidelines 
              • Receive nutrition assistance program benefits 
          • Result: Left pending in committee
        • 2019: Two carbon pricing bills were introduced in the House.
          • HB 223, authorizing a greenhouse gas emissions fee, was introduced by Rep. Reynolds but gained very little support.
            • Fee system: Imposes a $5 per carbon ton fee, which cannot increase in future years. 
            • Revenue: Goes to general revenue fund.  
              • 50% invested in a low-income energy efficiency program is established, offering assistance to electric consumers who meet one of the following criteria:
                • Have a household income less than 125% of the federal poverty guidelines 
                • Receive nutrition assistance program benefits 
            • Status: Died in committee
          • HB 4599, introduced by Rep. Cesar Blanco, also authorizing a $5 per carbon ton fee. 
            • Revenue: Invested in programs that reduce greenhouse gas emissions and payments to carbon capture and sequestration facilities for every ton of carbon dioxide they capture and sequester. 
            • Status: Died in committee

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • N/A

        Further Reading

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        654

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        418

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        37

        Utah

        This coming session, legislators expect to introduce the “Utah Roadmap,” which plans to be one of the most aggressive climate solutions in a Republican-led state. This bill proposes solutions to reduce carbon emissions 25 percent below 2005 levels by 2025 and 80 percent by 2050 by focusing on decreasing air pollution. This will involve dramatically reducing coal production throughout the state and increasing electric vehicle infrastructure.

        Last session, Utah lawmakers once again filed a “tax swap” carbon pricing bill that imposes a fee on pollution but in return reduces other state taxes in order to lessen the burden on consumers. The same legislation was filed last year and received some bipartisan support, but the Republican co-sponsors for that bill have retired. After the bill failed in the legislature two years in a row, a group of citizens coming together under the name Clean the Darn Air launched a campaign to put carbon pricing on the ballot in 2020. The campaign spent six months gathering signatures on a proposal to enact a carbon tax, with the goal of gathering 116,000 signatures by February. Ultimately, the campaign collected about 30,000 signatures, but met challenges that will make getting on the 2020 ballot extremely difficult. The group is now shifting its focus to future years, and there are plans to refile the petition in 2020 to make it on the ballot in 2022 or 2024.

        More on Utah

        2020 Legislation

        The 2020 Legislative Session began on January 27th and will wrap up on March 12th.

        • Rep. Joel Brisco introduced the Utah Roadmap Resolution (HCR011) to support the recommendations made in the Utah Roadmap. The resolution is currently in the House Rules Committee. 
        • Sen. Kirk Cullimore introduced the Concurrent Resolution Concerning Climate Action (SCR012) , which urges Utah’s representatives to the U.S. Congress to support climate action measures like carbon dividends. The resolution is currently in the legislative research and general counsel stage.

        Political Context

        • Republican Gov. Gary Herbert has expressed stiff opposition to carbon pricing, though he stated he is “willing to have the discussion” on the Clean the Darn Air initiative. 
        • Republicans hold firm majorities in both the Senate (23-6) and House (58-17). 
        • Utah’s budget this year includes $200,000 for a study on how climate change will impact the state.

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The Utah state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Target

        • By 2025: 20% clean electricity

        Past Legislation

        • In 2018, Utah’s first ever carbon pricing bill (HB 403) was introduced in the House by Rep. Joel Briscoe and Rep. Rebecca Edwards (R).
          • Fee system: $10 per carbon ton, increasing by 3.5% annually, plus inflation.
          • Revenue: 
            • 90% is rebated to consumers through the elimination of several existing state taxes, including the sales tax on grocery store food and income taxes on mining and manufacturing businesses. 
            • 10% is invested in reducing local air pollution and boosting rural economic development.
          • Result: The legislation was finalized too late in last year’s 45-day session to be considered by the House.
        • In 2019, the “Fossil Fuels Tax Amendment” (HB 304) was introduced by Rep. Joel Briscoe (D). The bill uses similar language as the previous year’s carbon pricing legislation (see HB 403 above).

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • Carbon Costs Coalition: Utah is a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        59

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        372

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        33

        Vermont

        On October 11th, 2019, Burlington Mayor Miro Weinberger proposed a state-wide carbon pollution fee starting at $30 per ton on heating and transportation fuels. The fee and rebate policy would cut statewide emissions by 37% by 2040 and boost economic growth. Burlington will also begin to use an internal carbon price to evaluate major purchasing decisions.

        Two carbon pricing bills were introduced in the House in February 2019, but neither have received a hearing or much support from Democratic leadership. The bills were released in the wake of a Resources for the Future report that concluded that carbon pricing would not hurt the state’s low-income residents or economic growth, and paired with other environmental initiatives, it would help the state meet its emission reduction goals. The consultants looked at a number of carbon pricing policies, including the ESSEX Plan, the Western Climate Initiative, the Transportation and Climate Initiative, and a “high carbon price” starting at $60 in 2020. 

        More on Vermont

        2019-2020 Legislation 

        The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 9th and will wrap up in mid-May of 2020. 

        • “An Act Relating To A Carbon Charge, Public Transportation, Tax Credits, Weatherization, And Incentives” (H 477) was introduced by Rep. Diana Gonzalez.
          • Fee system: Starts at $5 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually until reaching $50 per ton.
          • Revenue breakdown: 
            • ⅓ to fund programs and tax credits to support rural Vermonters.
            • ⅓  to fund programs and tax credits to support Vermonters with low income.
            • ⅓ to provide incentives for electric vehicles and weatherization.
          • Status: Referred to Committee of Energy and Technology on February 27th, where it has not received a hearing.
        • “An Act Relating to a Charge that is Refunded on Electric Bills” (H 463) was introduced by Rep. Selene Colburn. 
          • Fee system: Starts at $5 per carbon ton in 2021, increasing by $5 annually until reaching $40 per ton in 2028. 
          • Revenue: All revenue returned to customers on their electric bills. 
          • Status: Referred to Committee on Energy and Technology on February 27th, where it has not received a hearing. 

        Political Context

        • Republican Gov. Phil Scott long opposed a fee on carbon, and even rejected the state’s Climate Action Commission’s recommendation to study carbon pricing. Gov. Scott has repeatedly said carbon pricing would hurt low-income and rural Vermonters, and that he would veto any legislation that taxes emissions. 
        • Democrats have majorities in both the Senate (21-6) and House (95-43). However, Speaker of the House Mitzi Johnson and Senator Tim Ashe, president pro tempore of the Senate, have expressed their opposition to the passage of a carbon tax. 

        Emission Reduction Targets

        • By 2030: 40% below 1990 levels
        • By 2050: 80-90% below 1990 levels 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2017: 55% clean energy
        • By 2032: 75% clean energy

        Past Legislation

        2017

        • “The Economy-Strengthening Strategic Energy Exchange (ESSEX) Act” (H 791/S 284) was introduced by Sen. Christopher Pearson and Rep. Sarah Copeland-Hanzas. 
          • Fee system: $5 per carbon ton, increasing by $5 annually until reaching $40 per ton in 2027 
          • Revenue breakdown: 100% rebated to consumers through electric bills
          • Result: Failed in committee
        • “An Act Relating to a Study of Approaches to Greenhouse Gas Reductions” (H 763) required the Joint Fiscal Office to conduct a study, with independent professional assistance, on the costs and benefits to Vermont of various approaches to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and submit a report of its findings to the General Assembly. 
          • Result: Despite Gov. Scott’s rejection of the idea, two independent studies on carbon pricing were conducted, paid for mostly through private grants. 
        • “Joint resolution requesting the Governor to advocate for a regional carbon tax and to convene the RGGI states to discuss the development and implementation of this tax” (JRH006)
          • Result: Bill failed in committee after gaining 10 co-sponsors. 

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Vermont remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
        • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Phil Scott (R) has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 
        • Carbon Costs Coalition: Six Vermont legislators (Rep. Curt McCormack, Rep. David Deen, Rep. Mary Sullivan, Rep. Mike Yantachka, Rep. Copeland-Hanzas, Sen. Pearson) are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on pricing carbon. 

        Further Reading 

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        6

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        188

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        Out of 50 states

        11

        Virginia

        Gov. Ralph Northam (D) campaigned on the promise of strong climate action, pledging to make Virginia the first Southern state to participate in RGGI. But Republicans, holding a three-seat majority in the General Assembly, fiercely opposed the state’s entry into the cap-and-trade program. In a disappointing turn of events, Northam signed a budget that included a GOP provision prohibiting state dollars from being spent to “support membership or participation” in RGGI, effectively barring program administration. In April, the state did, however, approve a new regulation to cap and reduce carbon emissions from large fossil fuel electric power generating facilities by 30 percent by 2030. The move made Virginia the first Southern state — and the first formerly coal state — to adopt climate pollution regulations, and likely means the state will join RGGI in the next few years. 

        More on Virginia

        This is especially possible due to the fact that as of November 2019, for the first time since 1994, Democrats now have a majority in both state legislative bodies. Delegate Joseph Lindsey prefiled House Bill 20, the “Virginia Alternative Energy and Coastal Protection Act,” which would authorize the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to implement the cap-and-trade regulation approved earlier this year to comply with RGGI. The DEQ would auction off all permits, and use the revenue to address flooding and sea-level rise in communities, fund energy efficiency programs and provide support for workers in communities negatively affected by the decline in fossil fuel production.

        On September 17th 2019, Gov. Northam issued an executive order to expand access to renewable energy and set more ambitious targets for clean electricity generation. Northam set a goal of 30% renewable electricity by 2030 and 100% carbon-free electricity by 2050, with more ambitious targets for the Commonwealth’s agencies and executive branch institutions.

        The Virginia Clean Economy Act (SB 94/HB 1526), offered on January 8th, will reinvest RGGI carbon revenues to low-income residents to ensure they have access to energy efficiency. This bill outlines a plan for Virginia to become carbon neutral by 2050 through reducing energy waste through efficiency and increasing access to renewable energy. This codifies Gov. Northam’s executive order.  On February 11th, the Clean Economy Act passed through both the House and the Senate, and a final version of the bill that reconciled the two measures passed through March 6th. Now, the bill awaits Governor Northam’s signature.

        2020 Legislation

        The 2020 Legislative Session began on January 8th and will wrap up on March 8th.

        • On January 8th, House Bill 1526 was introduced by Rep. Sullivan called the Clean Economy Act, which would, among other things, allow Virginia to join RGGI.
          • Fee system: Aligned with the RGGI system
          • Revenue Breakdown: 
            • 45% of the revenue shall be credited to the account established pursuant to funds for the purpose of assisting localities and their residents affected by recurrent flooding, sea level rise, and flooding from severe weather events.
            • 50% will go towards a fund supporting low-income energy efficiency programs.
            • 3% will be used for administrative costs for the auction.
            • 2% will be used for administrative costs to administer the low-income energy efficiency programs. 
          • Status: Passed through the House on February 11th. 
        • In the Senate, Senate Bill 94, a similar version of the House bill, passed on January 24th. 

        Political Context

        • For the first time since 1994, Democrats gained a majority in both the House (54-43) and the Senate (21-19) in the November 2019 general election.
        • Gov. Ralph Northam (D) supported Virginia joining RGGI, but signed into law a budget that prohibits the state from doing so. However, this situation could change due to the Democratic majority established in the November 2019 state elections. On June 17th 2019, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a case in which Virginia’s Republican-led House challenged a redrawn voting map for the Virginia House of Delegates. The new map is viewed as favorable to Democrats, giving them an opportunity to capture majorities in the legislature and subsequently reverse the budget amendments and join RGGI. 

        Past Legislation

        • 2019: Legislation has been introduced in both the House and Senate enabling Virginia to join RGGI’s electric sector cap-and-trade program. 
          • On the House side, the “Virginia Coastal Protection Act” (HB .2735) was introduced by Rep. David Toscano. 
            • Revenue breakdown:
              • 77% to the Virginia Coastal Protection Fund, to implement hazard mitigation projects in areas subject to recurrent flooding
              • 10% to support energy efficiency projects
                • 20% of this will be used for low-income energy efficiency projects
              • 10% to provide economic development, education, and workforce training programs for families and businesses in communities most hurt by a decline of fossil fuel production.
              • 3% will be used for administration costs
            • Status: The bill was referred to the House Committee on Commerce and Labor as of February 5.
          • On the Senate side, identical legislation (SB .1666) was introduced by Sen. Lynwood Lewis. 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2030: 30% clean electricity
        • By 2050: 100% clean electricity

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        104

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        211

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        14

        Washington

        Washington has been actively working to pass a carbon fee for several years now, introducing carbon pricing ballot initiatives in both 2016 and 2018. In the 2018 November midterms, voters rejected I-1631, which would have imposed a $15 per ton fee on carbon, while in 2016, voters rejected ballot initiative I-732. 732 was a revenue neutral proposal, under which generated funds would be rebated back to taxpayers, while 1631 would have invested money in a variety of environmental initiatives. 

        On the heels of these failures, momentum for carbon pricing in the state of Washington has waned. Nevertheless, some carbon pricing legislation was introduced this session (SB 5981 , SB 5971, and HB 2957), as well as climate bills in other areas such as carbon sequestration (HB 2047). The legislature also successfully passed a clean energy bill this session (SB 5116) that has committed the state to achieve a carbon-neutral electric grid by 2030. This bill, proposed by Senator Reuven Carlyle (D), is the strongest 100% clean electricity policy in the nation.

        More on Washington

        In addition, Governor Jay Inslee has been very supportive of carbon pricing, mandating the Clean Air Rule in 2016 through an executive order, which imposed a cap on emitters from the power, industrial and fuel sectors. This ruling was challenged in the courts, and on January 16th 2020, the Washington Supreme Court ruled that his decision was legal, although with some limitations. While the Clean Air Rule is now permitted to regulate many large polluters, it cannot be applied to any indirect emitters, which include automobiles, the largest emitter in the state.

        2019-2020 Legislation

        The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 14th, 2019 and ends on April 22nd, 2020.

        • In the House, HB 2957 was introduced on March 3rd, 2020 by Representatives Fitzgibbon and Pollet that would  give complete authority to the Department of Ecology to create a carbon tax or cap-and-trade system. 
          • Status: Referred to Committee on Appropriations.
        • In the Senate, “An Act Relating To Implementing A Greenhouse Gas Emissions Cap and Trade Program” (SB 5981) was introduced by Senator Guy Palumbo.
          • Status: Introduced in the Senate on March 6th 2019, and referred to the Committee on Environment, Energy, and Technology.  On February 4th, the bill had a hearing in front of the Senate Committee on Environment, Energy, and Technology.
        • “An Act Concerning Transportation Funding” (SB 5971) was introduced by Senator Annette Cleveland.
          • Fee System: $15/ton of carbon
          • Status: Made it out of the Transportation Committee, and is currently pending in Ways and Means Committee.

        Political Context

        • Gov. Jay Inslee has made a name for himself as a long-time advocate of carbon pricing, and championed SB 6203. In his 2020 presidential run, Inslee  kept climate change a central part of his platform. Inslee is focusing on a clean fuel standard as the best available weapon against climate change, while Washington economists came to a broad consensus that carbon pricing is the most cost-effective way to reduce carbon emissions.
        • Democrats currently hold majorities in both the House (57-41) and Senate (28-21). Elections for open seats in the state legislature will be held this November, after the end of the current legislative session.

        Emission Reduction Targets 

        • By 2035: 25% below 1990 levels
        • By 2050: 50% below 1990 levels, or 70% below expected emissions 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2030: 100% clean energy

        Past Legislation

        • In 2018, a ballot initiative entitled “An Act Relating to Reducing Pollution by Investing in Clean Air, Clean Energy, Clean Water, Healthy Forests, and Healthy Communities by Imposing a Fee on Large Emitters Based on Their Pollution” (I-1631) looked to impose a price on carbon. 
          • Fee system: $15 per ton, increasing annually by $2 plus inflation
          • Revenue breakdown:
            • 70% invested in carbon reduction and clean air 
              • 15% of this must be targeted to reducing environmental impacts for low income residents
            • 30% invested in pollution and health action areas—regions where residents face more significant environmental health impacts based on their income, pollution levels, and other factors
        • Status: The initiative was rejected by 56% of voters in the November midterm election. 
        • On the Senate side:
          • “An Act Relating to Reducing Carbon Pollution by Moving to a Clean Energy Economy” (SB 6203) was introduced by Sen. Carlyle in 2018.
            • Fee system: Initially, carbon would be priced at $20 with an increase equal to inflation. Bill language was then adjusted to $12 per carbon ton, increasing by $1.8 per year until capping off  at $30.
            • Revenue breakdown:
              • 15% rebated to low-income assistance programs
              • 35% to water and state forest funds
              • 50% to carbon reduction and clean air investments
            • Status: Senate rules “X” File as of March, 2018 and does not make it out of the chamber.
          • “An Act Relating to Creating a Fossil Fuel Carbon Pollution Tax” (SB 6335) was introduced by Senators Hobbs and Saldaña in 2018.
            • Fee system: Carbon priced at $15 per ton until 2024 when it will rise to $20 per ton.
            • Revenue breakdown:
              • 40% used to reduce pollution from transportation sources, reduce congestion, and improve mobility
              • 20% invested in clean energy technologies and efficiency
              • 20% invested in reducing stormwater impacts
              • 10% for forest fire prevention and forest management 
              • 5% expended for fish barrier correction projects
              • 5% to benefit rural economic development
            • Status: Referred to Committee on Energy, Environment & Technology in January, 2018.
          • “An Act Relating to Establishing a Carbon Pollution Tax” (SB 5930) introduced by Sen. Palumbo in 2017.
            • Fee system: Carbon priced at $15 per ton with a rate increase of $2.50 until it reaches $30 per ton
            • Revenue breakdown:
              • 45% directed to a Carbon Reduction Investment Fund
              • 20% invested in water infrastructure
              • 20% invested in fire resiliency and prevention
              • 15% rebated to vulnerable populations
            • Status: By resolution, was reintroduced in January, 2018 and died in committee there.
        • On the House side:
          • “An Act Relating to Enacting a Carbon Emissions Tax to Fund  Stewardship of Washington’s Natural Resources and Investments in Communities and Economic Opportunity” (HB 2230) was introduced by Rep. Fitzgibbon in 2017.
            • Fee system: Carbon priced at $15 per ton of CO2 with an increase equal to inflation.
            • While exact revenue breakdown was not specified, money would be allocated to the following programs:
              • An Equitable Transition Fund to ensure impacted workers are supported during transition to a clean energy economy
              • A Low-income Carbon Pollution Mitigation Tax Grant to provide rebates for vulnerable populations
              • A Natural Resources Super Account
              • Clean Water Climate Grants
              • Forest Health Investments
              • Clean Air Investment Programs
              • Carbon Reduction Investment Fund
              • Sustainable Infrastructure Fund

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

        • Carbon Costs Coalition: Washington legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        79

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        160

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        7

        West Virginia

        Coal-fired power plants account for over 90% of West Virginia’s net electricity generation, and the state does not have a statewide energy plan or Renewable Portfolio Standard that would incentivize clean energy production. Carbon pricing legislation and other climate policies have a long way to go before being introduced in the state.

        More on West Virginia

        2019-2020 Legislation

        • The 2019-2020 Legislative Session convened on January 9th, 2019 and will adjourn on March 6th, 2020

        Political Context

        • West Virginia has a Republican state government trifecta. 
        • Republicans have a 59-41 majority in the West Virginia House of Representatives, and a 20-14 majority in the State Senate. 
        • Republican Gov. Jim Justice comes from a coal background and has been opposed to progressive climate policy. 

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The West Virginia state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Past Legislation

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target

        • N/A

        Further Reading 

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in West Virginia? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        95

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        1,354

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        50

        Wisconsin

        Despite pushback from the Legislature, Wisconsin Gov. Tony Evers (D) is pushing for clean energy adoption. On August 16th, 2019, Evers signed an executive order calling for the state’s energy usage to be 100% carbon free by 2050, making Wisconsin the first Midwestern state with a 100% clean electricity commitment. The order also establishes a new Office of Sustainability and Clean Energy, which will develop the state’s clean energy plan and ensure Wisconsin reaches the carbon reduction goals of the Paris Climate Accords. Evers created a climate change task force in early October to come up with recommendations to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change by August 2020. Lieutenant Governor Mandela Barnes will serve as chairman of the task force; other members include Republican and Democratic members of the Legislature and representatives from the state’s agriculture, energy, health, business, education and environmental sectors.

        More on Wisconsin

        2019-2020 Legislation

        The 2019-2020 Legislative Session convened on January 7th, 2019 and will be in session until January 4th 2021. 

        • On January 21st, Rep. Greta Neubauer introduced Assembly Bill 766, which would require utilities to consider a social cost on carbon. 
          • Fee system: The cost would be set at $50 a ton, which would be annually evaluated by the Public Service Commission and adjust it as necessary. 
          • The Public Service Commission also has to submit an annual report describing the evaluation of the cost. 
          • Status: In the Committee on Energy and Utilities

        Political Context

        • Republicans hold a 63-36 majority in the Wisconsin State Assembly, and a 19-14 majority in the State Senate. 
        • Democratic Gov. Tony Evers joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in February 2019, pledging Wisconsin to meet Paris Agreement obligations. 

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target

        • N/A

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2050: 100% clean energy

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        96

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        306

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        26

        Wyoming

        Wyoming is a challenging state for carbon pricing, given its large fossil fuel reserves and economy; the state exports over 40% of the nation’s coal and fossil fuel extraction generates billions of dollars of revenue. While Governor Mark Gordon (R) supports maintaining and expanding coal, oil and natural gas extraction, he is also interested in expanding Wyoming’s renewable energy generation — particularly wind energy. Gov. Gordon supports carbon capture and storage technology as a viable solution to continue coal mining and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In March, Gordon and Carbontech Labs — an initiative of the California-based nonprofit Carbon180 —  announced $1.25 million of funding to develop carbon capture and storage technology.

        More on Wyoming

        2020 Legislation

        • The 2020 Legislative Session convenes on February 10th and will adjourn on March 13th.

        Political Context

        • Wyoming has a Republican state government trifecta. 
        • Republicans have a 50-10 majority in the Wyoming House of Representatives, and a 27-3 majority in the State Senate. 
        • Republican Gov. Mark Gordon is a proponent of expanding development of Wyoming’s fossil fuel resources. 

        Past Legislation

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target

        • N/A

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • N/A

        Further Reading

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Wyoming? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        61

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        1690

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        51

        District of Columbia

        In December 2018, Washington D.C. passed the Clean Energy D.C. Act, considered to be one of the strongest pieces of climate legislation in the country. The bill, which transitions DC to 100% renewable energy by 2032, also invests in energy efficiency, funds local sustainability programs, and creates new building standards. The act also mandates DC to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 50% by 2032, and authorizes the Mayor to impose a carbon fee on motor fuel if Maryland and Virginia do the same. It has been in effect as of March 22nd, 2019.

        More on D.C.

        2019-2020 Legislation 

        • The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 2nd, 2019 and will end on December 31, 2020. 

        Political Context

        • D.C. is represented in the House of Representatives by Eleanor Norton (D).
        • Mayor Muriel Bowser pledged in 2017 to make the District carbon neutral by 2050.

        Emission Reduction Targets

        • By 2032: 50% below 2017 levels 
        • By 2050: 100% below 2017 levels

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2032: 100% clean energy

        Past Legislation

        • The “Clean Energy D.C. Act of 2018” (B22-0904) was introduced by Councilmembers to strengthen the jurisdiction’s 2004 renewable energy standard, and set specific emission-reduction targets. The omnibus bill, which also includes provisions on new building emission standards and funding local sustainability initiatives, notably contains a carbon pricing stipulation.
          • Fee system: 
            • This bill will increase the Sustainable Energy Trust Fund fee, established by the Renewable Portfolio Standard Act of 2004. This fee increase will result in a $1 increase to residents’ monthly electric and natural gas bills, and in an approximately $2.10 increase to average gas bills. This fund is used to promote energy efficiency, increase the renewable energy generating capacity of low-income housing, and reduce energy consumption.
            • This bill will also impose a carbon fee on motor fuel if Maryland and Virginia, the two most common commuter states for D.C., do the same.
          • Status: Passed in December 2018 and went into effect in January, 2019.

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Emissions by Sector

        Hover over the chart to see the percentage of emissions each economic sector is responsible for.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        3

        Emissions Intensity (tCO2e/$million GDP) 

        Emissions produced with respect to revenue generated in the state

        21

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        Out of 50 states

        1

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