STATE CLIMATE POLICY NETWORK

The State Climate Policy Network (SCPN) is a rapidly-growing project within the organization that includes more than 11,000 advocates and policymakers across the country who are pushing for effective and equitable climate policies in their states. We help provide these individuals with the tools they need to advance their campaigns and increase cross-collaboration. 

Catch up on our monthly Deep Dive webinars

Join our monthly phone calls, every last Wednesday of the month at 3pm ET

Sign up to Join

  • This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged.

Click on the states below for up-to-date policies and emissions data. 

Alabama

Alabama has not made significant progress on climate action, although its emissions have been declining over the past decade. The state does not have an established climate action plan or greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. The state government has made small efforts toward reducing emissions; Governor Kay Ivey (R) signed a gas tax increase in March 2019 that enacts an annual $200 fee on electric vehicles (EV) and $100 for hybrid vehicles, with 25% of the revenue funding a grant program to help install EV charging centers in Alabama.

More on Alabama

2021 Legislation

  • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on February 2nd and adjourned May 30th.

Political Context

  • Alabama has a Republican state government trifecta. 
  • Republicans have a veto-proof supermajority in both the Senate (27-7) and the House of Representatives (76-28).
  • Republican Gov. Kay Ivey has not prioritized environmental legislation. 

    Past Legislation 

    • N/A

    Emission Reduction Target

    • N/A

    Further Reading

    • N/A

    Key Figures

    • N/A

    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

    116.3

    Emissions by Sector (%)

    🅲 Commercial: 2.06%
    🅴 Electric: 46.29%
    🆁 Residential: 1.99%
    🅸 Industrial: 19.72%
    🆃 Transportation: 29.93%
    🅾 Other: 0%

    Emissions Intensity Ranking

    States from lowest to highest intensity

    38

    Climate Goals

    No state-wide emissions reductions targets

    Carbon Pricing Status

    Not yet considered

    Alaska

    Alaska has not made significant progress on climate action, in part due to its historical economic reliance on oil production. Former Independent Gov. Bill Walker established the Climate Action Leadership Team via administrative order in 2017, which released a proposed action plan that recommended setting 2030 goals to reduce oil, gas, and mining industry GHG emissions by 30%, increase building efficiency by 30%, and increase the percentage of renewables as an electricity source to 50%. However, in December of 2018, Walker was replaced by Republican Gov. Mike Dunleavy who eliminated the Team, likely delaying serious climate action in the state. 

    Outside of state-level policy, other jurisdictions have made advances in climate policy. In 2019, the Anchorage Assembly voted to adopt a city climate action plan, which aims to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050. Several other major cities like Fairbanks hope to release their own plan as well. Alaska also has a number of intergovernmental climate organizations working across federal, state, local, and tribal governments. One such organization is the Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN), the largest statewide Native organization in the state, which passed Resolution 19-56 in 2019, declaring a climate change state of emergency in Alaska.

    More on Alaska

    2021 Legislation

    • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 19th and adjourned on May 19th, 2021.

    Political Context

    • Alaska has a Republican state government trifecta.
    • Republican Gov. Dunleavy has taken the state backwards on climate policy, dismantling the Climate Action for Alaska Leadership Team established under his predecessor Gov. Bill Walker (I) in 2017. 
    • Republicans hold a 23-15 majority in the House, with two Independents, and a 13-7 majority in the Senate.

    Past Legislation

    • N/A

    Emission Reduction Target

    • N/A

    Further Reading

    Key Figures

    • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Alaska? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

    41.1

    Emissions by Sector (%)

    🅲 Commercial: 4.89%
    🅴 Electric: 7.35%
    🆁 Residential: 3.67%
    🅸 Industrial: 56.91%
    🆃 Transportation: 24.98%
    🅾 Other: 2.20%

    Emissions Intensity Ranking

    States from lowest to highest intensity

    46

    Climate Goals

    No state-wide emissions reductions targets

    Carbon Pricing Status

    Not yet considered

    Arizona

    Arizona was once a leader on climate policy. It was a founding member of the Arizona-Sonora Regional Climate Change Initiative (ASRCCI), the Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SCCI), and the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) regional emissions trading program. Since  Republican Gov. Jan Brewer’s withdrawal from WCI in 2010 and later, her signing of a law preventing state agencies from monitoring GHG emissions, Arizona has fallen behind on climate policy. Recent political changes and actions have indicated that this may be changing. In 2020, the Arizona Corporation Commission upgraded Arizona’s Renewable Portfolio Standards to 50% by 2035 and 100% by 2050. They also voted to increase energy efficiency standards, requiring utilities to implement enough energy-efficiency measures by 2030 to equal 35% of their 2020 peak demand.

    In the absence of sufficient state-level action, cities have led the charge on climate. Tucson has set a goal of carbon neutrality by 2030, committing the City to developing and implementing a comprehensive 10-year Climate Action and Adaptation Plan. Phoenix drafted a 2020 Climate Action Plan Framework, committing to a target of net-zero GHG emissions by 2050 and to conform to the Paris Agreement.

    More on Arizona

    2021 Legislation

    • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 11th and concluded on April 24th.
    • HB2202
      • Proposes creating motor vehicle and combustion engine emissions standards; incorporates the standards adopted by the California Air Resources Board. 
      • Status: Second reading in House on 1/21/21
    • HB2684
      • Proposes amending Title 23, Chapter 2, Article of Arizona´s Revised Statutes by adding Section 23-206 to protect agricultural, construction, landscaping, and oil and gas extraction workers from heat-related illness.
      • Status: Second reading in House on 2/2/21
    • HB2496
      • Proposes an amendment to Section 49-104 of Arizona’s Revised Statutes, requiring Arizona to develop a state plan to address the effects of climate change within the state and submit the plan to the governor for approval.
      • Status: Second reading in House on 1/28/21
    • SB1470 
      • Proposes establishing an Arizona climate resiliency planning group tasked with compiling a complete inventory of the state´s greenhouse gas emissions and sources, reviewing and revising recommendations made by the 2006 advisory group, developing a resiliency plan for Arizona’s human population and natural and economic systems against climate change, identifying measures to meet greenhouse gas emissions goals for 2030 and 2050, directing state agencies to identify potential and future risks to human, natural, and economic systems, and submitting a report on their findings to the Governor, Senate President, House Speaker, and Secretary of State by August 31, 2022.
      • Status: Second reading in Senate on 2/1/21

    Political Context

    • Arizona has a Republican state government trifecta.
    • Republicans hold a 31–29 majority over Democrats in the House and 16–14 majority in the Senate. 
    • Republican Gov. Doug Ducey has displayed little environmental leadership in his administration, only publicly acknowledging the human role in climate change in September of 2019.

      Past Legislation

      • Solar Energy Credit Law (1995): provided taxpayers credits for installing solar or wind energy devices at their residences in Arizona. The credit is 25% of the cost of a qualifying solar or wind energy device (with a $1,000 maximum allowable limit) against the taxpayer’s personal income tax.
        • Devices that qualify for the credit include wind generators, wind-powered pumps, solar-powered water-heating systems, and solar powered lighting systems.
      • Clean Car Program (2008, repealed in 2012): required car companies to lower emissions that harm air quality, reduce greenhouse-gas emissions, and sell and develop infrastructure for zero-emissions vehicles.
        • Arizona adopted this program under the Napolitano administration after the 2008 federal Clean Air Act forced states to adopt tailpipe-emissions regulations from the federal government or California’s standards. 
        • In 2010, the EPA revised its fuel-efficiency and greenhouse-gas standards; as a result, the Brewer administration’s ADEQ repealed the Clean Car Program and adopted the less stringent federal standards.
        • The repeal was heavily criticized by local climate and public health groups.

      State Agency Plans

      Emission Reduction Target

      • N/A

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2025: 15% of energy from renewable resources

      Indigenous Communities

      • Arizona is home to 21 federally recognized Native American tribes. 
      • As tribes and individuals, Native Americans control more than one-fourth of Arizona’s land—the largest share in any state and second only to Alaska in total acreage—and almost all of Arizona’s energy mineral resources are on tribal lands.
      • Nearly all of Arizona’s coal reserves are on tribal lands. All of the state’s commercial coal reserves are in the Black Mesa coal field, which is on the Navajo and Hopi lands.

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      93.7

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 3.14%
      🅴 Electric: 49.91%
      🆁 Residential: 2.46%
      🅸 Industrial: 6.33%
      🆃 Transportation: 38.16%
      🅾 Other: 0%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      21

      Climate Goals

      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Not yet considered

      Arkansas

      With a Republican state government trifecta, Arkansas has not made progress on climate action, although the Citizens’ Climate Lobby is working hard to pass clean energy initiatives. Arkansas’s CCL supported SB 145 in the Senate, which expands renewable energy use and makes it more accessible to residents. Now Act 464, the legislation was signed by Governor Asa Hutchinson (R) on March 14th, 2019.

      In the absence of a statewide climate action plan, the Arkansas Game & Fish Commission included a climate change adaptation strategy in its 2015 Wildlife Action Plan. The city of Fayetteville has also taken action, committing to the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement and creating an Energy Action Plan which sets a 2050 target for 100% clean energy usage

      More on Arkansas

      2021 Legislation

      • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 11th and adjourned on April 30th.

      Political Context

      • Arkansas has a Republican state government trifecta. 
      • Republican Gov. Asa Hutchinson supported Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, and during his time as a representative in Congress, he cast pro-environment votes on only 13% of key issues.. 
      • Republicans have a veto-proof supermajority in the Senate (28-7) and House (78-22).

      Emission Reduction Targets 

      • N/A

      Past Legislation

      • N/A

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        73.4

        Emissions by Sector (%)

        🅲 Commercial: 4.79%
        🅴 Electric: 50.27%
        🆁 Residential: 2.96%
        🅸 Industrial: 13.91%
        🆃 Transportation: 28.07%
        🅾 Other: 0%

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        41

        Climate Goals

        No state-wide emissions reductions targets

        Carbon Pricing Status

        Not yet considered

        California

        California has long been a state leader in climate change, imposing some of the most ambitious reduction targets and strongest regulations while continuing to grow their economy. It is currently the only state with an economy-wide cap-and-invest program. The California cap-and-invest program has generated $12.5 billion in aggregate since 2013, of which $5.3 billion has been implemented in climate action projects. 57% of these investments have benefitted ‘priority populations’, those communities most vulnerable to and burdened from climate and environmental harms in the state. It has also been successful in helping California meet its 2020 emission reduction target, which it surpassed in 2016. The devastating wildfires in California have only increased its climate ambition.

        More on California

        2021 Legislation

        • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on December 7th, 2020 and will adjourn on September 10th, 2021.
        • AB 118
          • Proposes enacting the Community Response Initiative to Strengthen Emergency Systems Act or the C.R.I.S.E.S. Act with the purpose of creating, implementing, and evaluating the 3-year C.R.I.S.E.S. Grant Pilot Program.
            • Would require the office to establish rules and regulations for the program with the goal of making grants to community organizations, for the purpose of expanding the participation of community organizations in emergency response for specified vulnerable populations.
            • Would require that grantees receive a minimum award of $250,000 a year.
          • Proposes that the office supports an 11-member C.R.I.S.E.S. Committee which is inclusive of community organizations with a proven history of leadership and partnership on emergency response.
          • Proposes establishing the C.R.I.S.E.S. Program Fund in the State Treasury in support of the fund.
          • Status: Received a Do Pass from Committee on Appropriations on 5/20/21.
        • AB 585
          • Proposes establishing the Extreme Heat and Community Resilience Program administered by the Office of Planning and Research (OPR).
            • Would require the OPR to coordinate the state’s efforts to address extreme heat and to facilitate the implementation of local, regional, and state climate change planning into effective projects through the awarding of competitive grants to eligible entities for project implementation.
          • Status: Received a Do Pass as Amended from Committee on Appropriations on 5/20/21
        • AB 897
          • Proposes authorizing a regional climate network, established and participated in by defined eligible entities, to engage in activities to address climate change, including developing a regional climate adaptation action plan.
            • Would require the office to make recommendations to certain policy and budget committees related to regional adaptation on expanding state support for the work of regional climate networks, and the potential sources of financial assistance and options for distributing state funds to support the regional climate action plans by January 1, 2023.
          • Status: Received a Do Pass from Committee on Appropriations on 5/20/21.
        • AB 1087
          • Proposes requiring the Public Utilities Commission (PUC) to annually allocate 5% of the revenues received by electrical corporations from the allocation of greenhouse gas allowances to the Environmental Justice Community Resilience Hubs Program.
            • Would require these allocated revenues to be awarded through competitive grants to owners of critical community institutions for building upgrade projects.
            • Would require that the program be operational and begin processing applications by July 1, 2023.
          • Status: In Committee on Appropriations, Hearing postponed by committee on 5/20/21.
        • AB 1384 
          • Proposes requiring the Strategic Growth Council to develop and coordinate a strategic resiliency framework that makes recommendations and identifies actions that are necessary to prepare the state for the most significant climate change impacts modeled for 2025, 2050, and beyond.
            • Would require identified state agencies to collaboratively engage with regional entities to enhance policy and funding coordination, promote regional solutions and implementation, and proactively engage vulnerable communities whose planning and project development efforts have been disproportionately impacted by climate change. 
          • Status: Received a Do Pass from Committee on Appropriations on 5/20/21.
        • SB 45 and AB 1500
          • Proposes creating a climate resiliency bond by making up to $7.08 billion in targeted investments related to safe drinking water, wildfire prevention, drought preparation, flood protection, extreme heat mitigation, and workforce development programs.
          • Status: SB 45 received a Do Pass from Committee on Appropriations on 5/20/21; AB 1500 received a Do Pass from Committee on Appropriations and re-referred to Committee on Rules on 5/20/21.
        • SB 99
          • Proposes establishing the Community Energy Resilience Act of 2021, requiring the commission to develop and implement a grant program for local governments to develop community energy resilience plans and expedite permit review of distributed energy resources.
            • Would authorize a community choice aggregator or other regional energy collaborative to apply for funding and prepare a community energy resilience plan on behalf of one or more of the local governments it serves upon request of that government. 
          • Proposes requiring the commission to maintain a publicly available and searchable database of all entities receiving grant funding pursuant to the program.
          • Status: Ordered to third reading on 5/20/21.

        Political Context

        • California has a Democratic state government trifecta. 
        • Democratic Gov. Gavin Newsom is a long-time environmentalist. He supports former Gov. Jerry Brown’s (D) goal of California producing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2045, and has even stated he wants the state to be a “net exporter” of clean power, shipping surplus electricity to neighboring states. 
          • In 2019, Newsom announced California will stop buying cars from automakers that backed the Trump administration’s decision to strip the state’s authority to set stricter pollution standards.
          • In September 2020, Newsom signed an executive order banning the sale of new gas-powered cars and trucks starting in 2035. This measure is projected to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 35%.
        • California is a founding member of the U.S. Climate Alliance.
        • Democrats have veto-proof supermajorities in the Senate (31-9) and House (60-19). 

          Emission Reduction Targets

          Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

          • By 2020: 33% from renewable sources
          • By 2024: 44% from renewable sources
          • By 2027: 52% from renewable sources
          • By 2030: 60% from renewable sources
          • By 2045: 100% renewable and zero-carbon sources

          Past Legislation

          • In 2013, California became the first US state to launch a multi-sector cap-and-trade program. The program regulates the emissions of more than 450 businesses — large electric power plants, large industrial plants, and fuel distributors — that are collectively responsible for about 85% of the state’s total greenhouse gas emissions. 
            • Origin of program: In 2006, California’s Global Warming Solution Act (AB 32), introduced by Assemblymembers Fran Pavley and Fabien Nunez, laid the groundwork for California’s cap-and-trade program. AB 32 called for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) — the state’s clean air agency — to enact regulations that would allow the state to reduce its emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. These regulations ultimately came in the form of an economy-wide cap on emissions. 
            • Fee system: Entities regulated by the program are allocated a specific number of carbon allowances each year, an amount that declines annually. Emission allowances are distributed through free allocations and quarterly auctions, with the portion of emissions covered by free allowances varying by industry and relative facility efficiency.
              • The California emissions cap, which stood at 358 million tons of carbon in 2018, will plummet to 200 million by 2030, a 44% decrease. 
              • After an entity pollutes beyond its allocated amount, they must purchase additional allowances via quarterly auctions. These allowances, essentially permits to pollute, are sold from a minimum reserve price that increases by 5% annually. For example, in California’s August 2017 auction, allowances were sold for $15.48 per ton, even though the reserve price was $13.57. 
              • The carbon market, shaped by how much companies are willing to pay and what demand looks like, determines the price of allowances. Allowance sales are how the program raises revenue, as the initial supply of allowances provided to governments is free. 
            • Revenue breakdown: 
              • 45% invested in reducing state emissions, through renewable energy and energy efficiency measures 
              • 35% rebated to households and businesses
              • 15% allocated to energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries
              • 5% held in the state reserve
              • AB 1550 additionally requires that 25% of funds are allocated to projects within and benefitting disadvantaged communities, with an additional 10% for low-income communities.
            • Status:
              • A scoping plan for the program is updated every 5 years. The 2017 update noted that while the program has succeeded in reducing emissions on track with the 2020 emissions reduction goal, the state must double the rate of emissions reductions to meet the 2030 goal of 40% from 2020 levels.
              • In 2017, legislation (AB 398) extended the cap-and-trade program through 2030.
              • In the 2015-2017 compliance period, 100% of regulated entities fully met their obligations.

          Further Reading

          Key Figures

          Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

          425.4

          Emissions by Sector (%)

          🅲 Commercial: 4.30%
          🅴 Electric: 14.83%
          🆁 Residential: 5.43%
          🅸 Industrial: 20.97%
          🆃 Transportation: 39.84%
          🅾 Other: 14.62%

          Emissions Intensity Ranking

          States from lowest to highest intensity

          3

          Climate Goals

          California updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2018 to reduce emissions

          By 2030:

          40%

          below 1990 levels

          By 2045:

          Net Zero

          By 2050:

          80%

          below 1990 levels

          Carbon Pricing Status

          Enacted on the regional level:

          Western Climate Initiative

          Colorado

          Colorado is a state making progress on climate action. On May 30th, 2019, Governor Jared Polis (D) signed SB 19-236 into law, requiring utilities to factor in the social cost of carbon, established at $46 per ton, when making resource planning decisions. Colorado also passed the Climate Action Plan to Reduce Pollution (HB 19-1261) in 2019, establishing state-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction goals of 26% by 2025, 50% by 2030, and 90% by 2050 in comparison to 2005 levels. In January 2021, Governor Polis released a GHG Pollution Reduction Roadmap, highlighting the importance of transitioning away from coal, changing transportation investment priorities, and increasing building efficiency and electrification to meet the 2025 and 2030 emissions reduction goals. Their findings show that while the goals are achievable, they will require additional policies beyond actions the state has already taken

          Cities have also shown climate leadership through initiatives such as the Boulder Climate Action Plan, which included the nation’s first voter-approved tax to address climate change, and Denver’s Ballot Initiative 2A, which levied a 0.25% sales tax dedicated to climate action in the city.

          More on Colorado

          2021 Legislation

          • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 13th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 12th, 2021.
          • SB21-200 – Reduce Greenhouse Gases Increase Environmental Justice
            • Directs the Colorado Air Quality Control Commission (AQCC) to consider the social cost of GHG emissions and require a linear or more stringent path when adopting rules for the statewide reduction of GHG emissions, as well as requiring the AQCC adopts rules to ensure emissions reductions by March 1, 2022.
            • Directs wholesale generation and transmission electric cooperatives to develop a responsible energy plan that will achieve at least an 80% GHG reduction by 2030 as compared to 2005 levels, with a specification that failure to file such a plan will require the cooperative to achieve at least a 90% GHG reduction by 2030.
            • Directs electric utility and cooperative electric associations to reduce GHG emissions by at least 95% between 2035 and 2040, and by 100% by 2040. 
            • Creates an environmental justice ombudsperson and advisory board in the Department of Public Health and the Environment to work collaboratively for the promotion of environmental justice in Colorado.
            • Status: Referred Amended to Senate Committee of the Whole, passing in a 4-3 party-line vote with Democrats in favor on 5/12/21.
              • The Governor’s Office has said it cannot support the bill in its current form, but there’s not yet been discussion of a veto.

          Political Context

          • Colorado has a Democratic state government trifecta.
          • Democrats currently hold the majority in both the House (41-24) and Senate (20-15)
          • Governor Jared Polis (D) made environmental issues a cornerstone of his campaign and has pledged to ensure the state’s energy supply is 100% renewable by 2040.
          • Colorado joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

          Emission Reduction Targets

          Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

          In 2004, Colorado’s voters became the first in the country to adopt an RPS by ballot initiative.

          Past Legislation

          • In 2007, the city of Boulder passed the Climate Action Plan (CAP), which was branded as America’s first voter-approved tax aiming to address climate change. The fee is based on the amount of electricity consumed. 
            • Fee system: The CAP levies a tax on residents and businesses, imposing different rates depending on the sector. Xcel Energy collects the tax on its monthly utility bills, and customers subscribing to wind-generated power are exempt from taxation. 
              • The average resident pays $21 per year.
              • The average commercial organization pays $96 per year.
              • The average industrial organization, approximately 13 of the city’s largest energy users, pay $9,600 per year.
              • Based on those three sectors, annual revenue from the fee is about $1.8 million.
            • Revenue breakdown:
              • 38% to enhance commercial and industrial building energy efficiency
              • 25% to enhance residential building efficiency
              • 25% for local renewables, EVs, and market innovation
              • 12% for strategy development, outreach, and program evaluation
            • Status: In 2015, the city of Boulder voted to extend the CAP tax through 2023. So far, the tax has generated almost $18 million in revenue.
          • SB 236 (2019) mandated that the Colorado Public Utilities Commission consider the social cost of carbon, starting at $46 and increasing with inflation, when making utility decisions
          • HB19-1261Climate Action Plan To Reduce Pollution (2019)
            • Implements statewide goals to reduce 2025 greenhouse gas emissions by at least 26%, 2030 greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50%, and 2050 greenhouse gas emissions by at least 90% of the levels of statewide greenhouse gas emissions that existed in 2005.
          • HB19-1314– Just Transition From Coal-based Electrical Energy Economy (2019)
            • Establishes a Just Transition Office tasked with delivering programming and funding to communities and workers impacted by a transition away from coal-fired electricity and to disproportionately impacted communities who have borne the costs of pollution.
            • Requires that a just transition advisory committee will develop a draft just transition plan, and the director of the office will submit a final just transition plan to the governor and general assembly.
          • HB19-1272Housing Authority Property In Colorado New Energy Improvement District (2019)
            • Allows public housing authorities to participate in the state’s property-assessed clean energy (PACE) program, a way to finance clean energy projects.
          • SB19-096 Collect Long-Term Climate Change Data (2019)
            • Requires the air quality control commission in the department of public health and environment (department) to collect greenhouse gas emissions data from greenhouse gas-emitting entities and report on the data, including a forecast of future emissions.
            • Requires the division of administration in the department to update a statewide inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by sector and to post the findings of the inventory on the division’s website through 2030.

            Further Reading

            Key Figures

            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

            93.2

            Emissions by Sector (%)

            🅲 Commercial: 4.42%
            🅴 Electric: 35.73%
            🆁 Residential: 8.80%
            🅸 Industrial: 16.25%
            🆃 Transportation: 33.73%
            🅾 Other: 1.60%

            Emissions Intensity Ranking

            States from lowest to highest intensity

            22

            Climate Goals

            Colorado has legally enforceable mandates to reduce emissions

            By 2025:

            26%

            below 2005 levels

            By 2030:

            50%

            below 2005 levels

            By 2050:

            90%

            below 2005 levels

            Carbon Pricing Status

            Enacted on the municipal level in:

            Boulder

            Aspen

            Connecticut 

            Connecticut has been a member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) since 2008 and is part of the group of states working together on the Transportation and Climate Initiative (TCI). There is much discussion on reinstating highway tolls as a revenue producer. Connecticut is one of the few Eastern Seaboard states that does not have any highway tolls. 

            On September 3rd, 2019, Governor Ned Lamont (D) issued an executive order that requires the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to create a strategy to achieve a target of a 100% carbon-free electric sector by 2040. The Governor’s Council on Climate Change (GC3) released a report in December 2018 with recommendations for achieving a 45% GHG reduction by 2030.” In 2020, working groups were assembled to assess progress and provide further recommendations for each topic area. These reports were concluded in November 2020. In January 2021, GC3 released its Phase 1 report on near-term actions to begin implementation by early 2022.

            Connecticut has also become a leader in developing off-shore wind. In 2019, Public Act No. 19-71 was passed, establishing a process to solicit proposals from developers of offshore wind power facilities and ordering the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to procure 2,000 MW of offshore wind energy.

            In December 2020, Connecticut joined Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Washington, DC to sign the Transportation and Climate Initiative, a regional cap-and-trade program for the transportation sector. In January 2021, Governor Ned Lamont introduced legislation to implement the TCI program, aiming to cap CO2 emissions from gasoline and on-road diesel fuel, require wholesale fuel suppliers to purchase allowances to cover fuel emissions, and reinvest the revenue, 35% of which would directly benefit communities overburdened by pollution, in transportation projects to reduce GHGs.

            More on Connecticut

            2021 Legislation

            • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 6th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 9th, 2021.
            • SB 884 – An Act Reducing Transportation-Related Emissions 
              • Partnering with neighboring states to implement a regional program that caps CO2 emissions from gasoline and on-road diesel fuel
              • Requires wholesale fuel suppliers to purchase “allowances” at auction to cover the emissions from those fuels, and reinvests the proceeds of those auctions into transportation projects and programs that will reduce greenhouse gas emissions
              • At least 35% of the proceeds will be used for communities that are most negatively impacted by air pollution and underserved by the transportation system.
              • Status: Received a Favorable Report in the Senate on 4/20/21

            Political Context

            • Connecticut has a Democratic state government trifecta.
            • Democratic Gov. Lamont promised constituents he will prioritize climate issues during his first term. His ambitious goals include improving the state’s energy portfolio to be 100% renewable by 2040, and ensuring that all new homes and buildings will be zero carbon by 2035. 
            • Democrats hold majorities in both the Senate (24-12) and House (97-54).
            • Connecticut joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

            Emission Reduction Targets

            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

            • By 2030: 48% from renewable energy sources
            • By 2040: non-codified goal of 100% zero-carbon energy sources

              Past Legislation

              • An Act Concerning Climate Change Planning and Resiliency” (Public Act No. 18-82) 2019
                • Requires the state to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of at least 45% below 2001’s GHG emissions level by January 1, 2030;
                • Integrates GHG reductions into the Integrated Resources Plan, the Comprehensive Energy Strategy, and various other state planning documents and efforts;
                • Integrates new sea level change projections into various municipal and state planning documents, including plans of conservation and development, and municipal evacuation or hazard mitigation plans; and
                • Applies the new sea level change projections to the state’s coastal management and flood management laws.
              • HB 7156: An Act Concerning the Procurement of Energy Derived from Offshore Wind (2019)
                • Requires the state to solicit up to 2 gigawatts of offshore wind power over the next 11 years, equal to 30% of the state load. 
              • PA 18-50: An Act Concerning Connecticut’s Energy Future (2018)
                • Doubled the state’s renewable portfolio standard (RPS) from 20% by 2020 to 40% by 2030.
              • In 2015, Connecticut formed the Governor’s Council on Climate Change to evaluate ways to reach the state’s ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of 80% below 2001 levels by 2050.

              Further Reading

              Key Figures

                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                48.1

                Emissions by Sector (%)

                🅲 Commercial: 9.39%
                🅴 Electric: 22.46%
                🆁 Residential: 16.05%
                🅸 Industrial: 11.90%
                🆃 Transportation: 35.00%
                🅾 Other: 5.20%

                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                States from lowest to highest intensity

                5

                Climate Goals

                Connecticut established its legally enforceable mandates in 2008 to reduce emissions

                By 2020:

                10%

                below 1990 levels

                By 2030:

                45%

                below 2001 levels

                By 2050:

                80%

                below 2001 levels

                Carbon Pricing Status

                Enacted on the regional level:

                Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                Under consideration on the regional level:

                Transportation and Climate Initiative

                Delaware 

                Delaware has made some progress on climate action and generally follows other states in the Northeast. A founding member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), Delaware pledged to partake in another carbon pricing scheme — the Transportation and Climate Initiative (TCI) — which would cap transportation sector emissions. However, since the pledge in 2019, the idea of imposing a direct, multi-sector fee on carbon pollution hasn’t gained much traction in the state, and they have not stayed committed to TCI. The League of Women Voters of Delaware conducted a study on statewide carbon pricing in 2015, which found that pricing carbon, either via a direct fee or a regulatory mechanism like cap-and-trade, would significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 

                Delaware is in the midst of developing a comprehensive Climate Action Plan set to be finalized by December 2021. As part of this process, the state commissioned a technical study to characterize and model GHG emission sources and potential reductions.

                More on Delaware

                2021 Legislation

                • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 12th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 30th, 2021.
                • An Act To Amend Title 26 Of The Delaware Code Relating To Renewable Energy Portfolio Standards (SB 33)
                  • Increases the Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard to 40% renewable energy by 2035.
                  • Triples the RPS solar carve-out from 3.5% by 2025 to 10% by 2035.
                  • Status: Signed into law by Gov. Carney on February 10th, 2021.

                Political Context

                • Delaware has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                • Democratic Governor John Carney generally supports strong climate policy. He firmly opposed Trump’s repeal of the Clean Power Plan, and is a member of the U.S. Climate Alliance.
                • Democrats hold veto-proof supermajorities in the Senate (14-7) and House (26-15).
                • The 2020 election strengthened the Democratic majority in the Senate and ushered in a wave of progressive and diverse candidates.

                Emission Reduction Targets

                Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                • By 2019: 10% from renewable sources
                • By 2025: 25% from renewable sources
                • By 2035: 40% from renewable sources

                Past Legislation

                • Executive Order 18 (2018, Gov. Markell)
                  • Requires that all state executive agencies, departments, and offices reduce their energy consumption 30% from 2008 levels by 2015.
                    • Directs all state agencies, departments, and offices to develop a system of benchmarking, monitoring, and tracking the energy use and GHG emissions of all state-owned and -leased facilities.
                  • Requires that all buildings owned or operated by state executive branch agencies target at least 20% of its overall energy demand from clean, renewable sources by 2012, and 30% by 2013.
                  • Requires all new construction, renovation, and operation of state facilities to integrate the U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) practices, designing all capital projects to meet or exceed LEED Silver standards.
                  • Requires that all state executive agencies, departments, and offices achieve a 50% waste diversion rate by 2011 and a 75% diversion rate by 2012.
                  • Requires that all agencies improve air quality and reduce operating expenses from State vehicle use with the goal of reducing, from 2008 levels, petroleum consumption by 25%, vehicle emissions by 25%, and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by 15% by 2012.
                • Executive Order 41 (2013, Gov. Markell)
                  • Creates a Governor’s Committee on Climate and Resiliency to oversee the development of an implementation plan to maintain and expand the state’s reduction in GHG emissions, ensuring that state efforts advance the use of cleaner, cheaper, and more reliable energy; improve public health outcomes; increase employment; and more.
                    • The plan must be completed and reported to the Governor by the end of 2014, and annually thereafter.
                    • This plan was released as the Climate Framework for Delaware, and the Committee set the state’s goal of 30% emissions reduction by 2030.
                  • Directs the Committee to develop agency-specific actionable recommendations for improving the state’s preparedness and resiliency to climate impacts on public health and safety, public infrastructure and facilities, agriculture, tourism, and other industries, using natural systems or green infrastructure as the preferred method of improvement.
                    • Required that these recommendations also included the sharing of best practices with local governments, as well as outreach to residents and businesses on risks and adaptation strategies.
                  • Requires that all state agencies incorporate measures for adapting to increased flood heights and sea level rise in the siting and design of construction and reconstruction projects.

                  Further Reading

                  Key Figures

                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                  17.0

                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                  🅲 Commercial: 8.14%
                  🅴 Electric: 15.58%
                  🆁 Residential: 7.45%
                  🅸 Industrial: 30.48%
                  🆃 Transportation: 31.87%
                  🅾 Other: 6.48%

                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                  15

                  Climate Goals

                  Delaware established its legally enforceable mandates in 2014 to reduce emissions

                  By 2030:

                  By 2025:

                  30%

                  26–28%

                  below 2008 levels
                  below 2005 levels

                  Carbon Pricing Status

                  Enacted on the regional level:

                  Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                  Under consideration on the regional level:

                  Transportation and Climate Initiative

                  Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                  Florida

                  Although Florida has a Republican state government trifecta, and has for quite some time, its unique situation as a state that faces extreme climate impacts has allowed some progress to be made on climate policy, particularly as of late.

                  In March 2020, the first bill passed in Florida that recognized climate change as a threat caused by humans. The bill, (SB 178), requires all state-funded buildings in coastal zones to take into account sea-level rise before they begin building. While this was the only climate bill that passed during that session, a host of other climate legislation was introduced, including a bill that would’ve made the executive position of chief resilience officer permanent and a bill that would have updated the states’ renewable portfolio standard (RPS). In fact, more climate-related legislation was introduced during the 2020 session in Florida than ever before. In the 2021 session, some members of the legislature introduced ambitious climate bills, while opponents proposed preemptive legislation to prohibit restrictions on emissions reductions, fuel source regulation, and other essential strategies for climate adaptation.

                  More on Florida

                  2021 Legislation

                  • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on March 2nd, 2021 and adjourned on April 30th, 2021.
                  • The main theme of the session has been preemptive legislation that many state Republicans support in order to have the state dictate energy policy. However, many ambitious pieces of climate legislation were also introduced, although most did not pass. 
                  • Resilient Florida Program
                    • Sets aside $500M of the state budget for a grant program to provide local and state governments with funding for adaptation to sea level rise, intensified storms, and local flooding.
                    • Status: Both chambers agreed on this funding upon finalizing and approving the budget.
                  • HB 919 – Preemption Over Restriction of Utility Services
                    • Proposes the prohibition of any political subdivisions from restricting or prohibiting types or fuel sources of energy production
                    • Status: Ordered enrolled on 4/26/21 (passed both chambers of the legislature in identical form)
                  • SB 720 and HB 283 – State Renewable Energy Goals (not passed)
                    • Proposed the prohibition of drilling or exploration for, or production of petroleum products on Florida lands and waters
                    • Proposed that 100% of the state’s electricity be generated from renewable sources by 2020. 
                    • Proposed that statewide carbon emissions be net-zero by 2050.
                    • Status (SB 720): Died in Environment and Natural Resources on 4/30/21
                    • Status (HB 283): Died in Tourism, Infrastructure & Energy Subcommittee on 4/30/21
                  • SB 514 and HB 315 – Resiliency (not passed)
                    • Proposed the creation of a statewide Office of Resiliency within the Governor’s Office.
                    • Proposed the creation of an adjunct statewide Sea-Level Rise Task Force to recommend projections of expected sea level rise and flooding impacts along the state’s coast.
                    • Status (SB 514): Died in Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture, Environment, and General Government on 4/30/21
                    • Status (HB 315): Died in Environment, Agriculture & Flooding Subcommittee on 4/30/21

                  Political Context

                  • Florida has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                  • Republicans hold majorities in the Senate (24-16) and House (78-42).
                  • Republican Gov. Ron DeSantis previously voted against a carbon fee while in the US House of Representatives, but did issue an executive order calling for the establishment of an Office of Resilience and Coastal Protection, inherently responding to climate-related threats. 

                  Past Legislation

                  • Florida Senate Resolution 1572 (2020)
                    • Expresses the Legislature’s support for the adoption of policies that will prepare Florida for the environmental and economic impact of climate change, sea-level rise, and flooding, and recognizing the important role that resiliency and infrastructure will play in fortifying this state, etc.
                  • An Act Relating to Public Financing of Construction Projects”- SB 178 (2020)
                    • Prohibits state-financed constructors from commencing construction of certain structures in coastal areas after a specified date without first taking certain steps regarding a sea level impact projection study; requiring the Department of Environmental Protection to develop by rule a standard for such studies; providing that such rule operates prospectively on projects that have not yet commenced as of the finalization of the rule, etc.

                  Emission Reduction Target

                  • N/A

                  Further Reading

                  Important Organizations

                  Key Figures

                  • Representative Anna Eskamani
                    • Very popular in her district, she has introduced some of the most progressive state legislation regarding sustainability and renewable energy. 
                  • Nikki Fried 
                    • 12th Commissioner of Agriculture and Consumer Services
                    • Only Democrat elected to a statewide office currently. Her fairly progressive leadership has been a thorn in DeSantis’ side, and many believe she is positioning herself for a potential Gov. campaign

                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                  238.7

                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                  🅲 Commercial: 3.03%
                  🅴 Electric: 42.05%
                  🆁 Residential: 0.60%
                  🅸 Industrial: 6.14%
                  🆃 Transportation: 48.18%
                  🅾 Other: 0%

                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                  13

                  Climate Goals

                  No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                  Carbon Pricing Status

                  Not yet considered

                  Georgia

                  Although Georgia has not made much progress on climate policy, there is significant renewable energy potential in the state. Georgia ranks 9th in the nation in solar capacity and has added thousands of clean energy jobs annually. 

                  Cities are leading clean energy efforts due to inaction at the state level. Atlanta has demonstrated leadership with pushing carbon-free electricity forward; in 2017, Atlanta passed Clean Energy Atlanta, a comprehensive plan to transition the city to 100% clean energy by 2035. The cities of Athens and Savannah are committed to 100% clean, renewable energy by 2035, and Augusta and Clarkston are committed to achieving 100% renewable energy by 2050.

                  More on Georgia

                  2021 Legislation

                  • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 11th, 2021 and adjourned on April 2nd, 2021.The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 11th, 2021 and adjourned on April 2nd, 2021.
                  • HB 150 
                    • Prohibits governmental entities from restricting the use of type or source of energy or fuel for utility services.
                    • Status: Passed on 5/6/21

                  Political Context

                  • Georgia has a Republican state government trifecta.
                  • Republicans hold a majority in the House of Representatives (103-77) and in the State Senate (34-22).
                  • Republican Gov. Brian Kemp has not been explicit about his stance on clean energy, the environment, or clean transportation. He supports “fact-based efforts” to protect the environment, but has not endorsed any specific climate policies. Kemp recommends local regulations instead of enacting statewide solutions.
                  • No state legislators list climate or environmental issues among their top priorities.

                    Past Legislation

                    • N/A

                    Emission Reduction Target

                    • N/A

                    Renewable Portfolio Standard

                    • N/A

                    Further Reading

                    Key Figures

                    Bill Hawthorne; Chief Resilience Officer for City of Atlanta

                    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                    139.0

                    Emissions by Sector (%)

                    🅲 Commercial: 3.52%
                    🅴 Electric: 37.56%
                    🆁 Residential: 5.69%
                    🅸 Industrial: 11.37%
                    🆃 Transportation: 41.86%
                    🅾 Other: 0%

                    Emissions Intensity Ranking

                    States from lowest to highest intensity

                    20

                    Climate Goals

                    No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                    Carbon Pricing Status

                    Not yet considered

                    Hawaii

                    Hawaii was the first state in the country to legally commit to a zero-emissions, carbon neutral economy by 2045, and recently became the first state to declare a climate emergency. Native Hawaiians and Hawaii residents have instilled a culture of stewardship of the environment.

                    Hawaii’s Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Commission, created by Act 32 in 2017, promotes ambitious, climate-neutral, and culturally responsive strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation, ensuring actions are clean, equitable and resilient. It has two priority statements focusing on ground transportation emissions reductions and sea level rise adaptation. Recently, the Commission released its 2020 Annual Report.

                    More on Hawaii

                    2021 Legislation

                    • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 20th, 2021 and adjourned on April 29th, 2021.
                    • SCR 44 (Resolution)
                      • Declares a climate emergency and requests statewide collaboration toward an immediate just transition and emergency mobilization effort to restore a safe climate.
                      • Hawaii is the first state to declare a climate emergency.
                      • Status: Signed and enacted on 4/23/21
                    • SCR 56 (Resolution)
                      • Proposes requesting the Governor to convene and participate in the Hawaii Circular Economy Task Force that supports Hawaii’s transition toward a circular economy by 2035.
                      • Status: Report adopted from Committee on Energy and Environmental Protection, referred to the Committee on Finance on 4/8/21

                    Political Context

                    • Hawaii has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                    • Gov. David Ige (D) has been a leader on climate issues, signing SB 559 in 2017 and making Hawaii the first state in the nation to enact legislation that implements portions of the Paris Climate Agreement. 
                    • Democrats have a veto-proof supermajority  in both the Senate (24-1) and House (47-4).
                    • Hawaii joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in 2017.

                    Past Legislation

                    • Act 32 (2017)
                      • Requires the State to expand strategies and mechanisms to reduce greenhouse gas emissions statewide in alignment with the principles and goals adopted in the Paris Agreement. 
                      • Renames the Interagency Climate Adaptation Committee as the Hawaii Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Commission.
                    • HB 623 (2015)
                      • Increases renewable portfolio standards to 30 percent by December 31, 2020, 70 percent by December 31, 2040, and 100 percent by December 31, 2045. 
                      • Requires the Public Utilities Commission to include the impact of renewable portfolio standards, if any, on the energy prices offered by renewable energy developers and the cost of fossil fuel volatility in its renewable portfolio standards study and report to the Legislature.
                    • HB 1714: Hawaii Climate Adaptation Initiative Act (2014)
                      • Establishes an interagency climate adaptation committee to develop a sea-level rise vulnerability and adaptation report addressing statewide climate impacts projected up to 2050.

                        Emission Reduction Target

                        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                        Further Reading 

                        Key Figures

                        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                        20.7

                        Emissions by Sector (%)

                        🅲 Commercial: 2.18%
                        🅴 Electric: 27.72%
                        🆁 Residential: 0.45%
                        🅸 Industrial: 6.71%
                        🆃 Transportation: 47.91%
                        🅾 Other: 15.01%

                        Emissions Intensity Ranking

                        States from lowest to highest intensity

                        17

                        Climate Goals

                        Hawaii updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2018 to reduce emissions

                        By 2020:

                        Return to 1990 levels

                        By 2045:

                        100%

                        below 2018 levels

                        Carbon Pricing Status

                        Under consideration on the legislative level

                        Idaho

                        Idaho has not made significant progress on climate action, although Governor Brad Little (R) has declared that climate change is real and must be reversed, surprising many. Gov. Little said the state is making progress working with state and federal agencies, but Idaho is far from developing a comprehensive climate action plan.

                        In April 2019, the Boise City Council voted to adopt “Boise’s Energy Future” — a plan to consume 100% clean electricity by 2035. Boise is the first and only city in Idaho to adopt this goal. 

                        Idaho Power plans to stop using coal energy and rely instead on hydroelectric, solar and wind resources. The utility, serving over 500,000 Idaho and Oregon residents, vows that 100 percent of energy will come from “clean” sources by 2045.

                        More on Idaho

                        2021 Legislation

                        • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 11th, 2021 and adjourned on March 26th, 2021.

                        Political Context

                        • Idaho has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                        • Republicans have veto-proof supermajorities in both the House (58-12) and the Senate (28-7). 
                        • Republican governor Brad Little surprised many by acknowledging climate change in an address shortly after his inauguration in 2019.

                          Past Legislation 

                          • N/A

                          Emission Reduction Target

                          • N/A

                          Further Reading 

                          • N/A

                          Key Figures

                          • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Idaho? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                          Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                          19.9

                          Emissions by Sector (%)

                          🅲 Commercial: 7.32%
                          🅴 Electric: 6.44%
                          🆁 Residential: 9.23%
                          🅸 Industrial: 19.45%
                          🆃 Transportation: 57.57%
                          🅾 Other: 0%

                          Emissions Intensity Ranking

                          States from lowest to highest intensity

                          19

                          Climate Goals

                          No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                          Carbon Pricing Status

                          Not yet considered

                          Illinois

                          Illinois shows a lot of promise when it comes to climate legislation. The Democratic governor, J.B. Pritzker, seems committed to climate solutions and has tweeted that he is “not going to be an energy bill written by the utility companies.” The state has a lot of momentum in renewable energy development since it passed the landmark Future Energy Jobs Act in 2016. There is a broad coalition supporting the Clean Energy Jobs Act (CEJA), which will go even further in weaning the state off of fossil fuels while strengthening equity protections and holding utilities accountable.

                          Nonetheless, Illinois faces some obstacles to climate legislation. The state consumes a large amount of coal and natural gas, and has a large coal mining industry. This is why the Illinois Clean Jobs Coalition has been so focused on including protections in their signature bill for coal miners who may need retraining during the transition to renewable energy.

                          More on Illinois

                          2021 Legislation

                          • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 13th, 2021 and adjourned on May 31st, 2021.
                          • Consumers and Climate First Act (2021)
                            • Proposes a phase-out of coal-fired power by 2030 and natural gas-fired power by 2045.
                            • Proposes plant-specific declining caps on emissions, eventually leading to closures.
                            • Proposes a price on carbon emissions at $8 a ton, increasing 3% each year.
                            • Proposes workforce training and equity components, including the development of clean jobs training hubs, and the provision of scholarships and other support mechanisms for families of workers displaced by the transition out of coal.
                            • Proposes an expansion of the Illinois Solar for All program to make solar energy and jobs accessible to marginalized communities.
                            • Status: Referred to Assignments on 4/29/2021 
                          • Path to 100 Act (first introduced in 2020)  
                            • Proposes expanding Illinois’ Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) to 40% by 2030 and requiring that goal be met by new, in-state projects that create Illinois jobs.
                            • Proposes driving procurement of an estimated 6,000 MW of new utility scale solar, 6,500 MW of new wind, 7,500 MW of new residential, commercial and community solar.
                            • Proposes the creation of thousands of new, family-supporting clean energy jobs.
                            • Proposes facilitating and amplifying successful programs encouraging a diverse & equitable workforce.
                            • Status: Reassigned to Energy and Public Utilities on 5/10/21
                          • Clean Energy Jobs Act (CEJA) (first introduced in 2019)
                            • Proposes a target of 100% renewable energy by 2050.
                            • Proposes endowing the Illinois Power Agency (IPA) with the authority to oversee a Carbon-Free Capacity Market that would not be subject to the FERC regulation, thus cutting utility bills while promoting clean energy.
                            • Proposes levying fees on fossil fuel power plant emissions, as well as an excise tax on coal production, and using the revenue to invest hundreds of millions of dollars in a just transition away from fossil fuels.
                            • Proposes directing the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to create a plan that will facilitate a complete elimination of power plant carbon emissions by 2030.
                            • Proposes the creation of “Clean Jobs Workforce Hubs” throughout Illinois that will assist with job training for underprivileged workers and former fossil fuel industry employees.
                            • Proposes the creation of a Displaced Energy Workers Bill of Rights that includes protections such as a requirement that workers affected by plant closures be provided with one year of healthcare by their employer.
                            • Status: Re-referred to Rules Committee 4/23/21

                          Political Context

                          • Illinois has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                          • In January 2019, Democratic Gov. J.B. Pritzker issued an executive order committing to the goals of the Paris Climate Accord. In his inaugural address, he pointedly said, “I believe in science” and spoke of the threat climate change poses. 
                          • Democrats have veto-proof supermajorities in the Senate (41-18) and House (73-45). 
                          • Illinois joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in 2019.

                          Emission Reduction Targets

                          • By 2020: 1990 levels
                          • By 2025: 26-28% below 2005 levels (in accordance with the Paris Climate Agreement)
                          • By 2050: 60% below 1990 levels

                          Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                          Past Legislation

                            • Future Energy Jobs Act (SB 2814) (2016)
                              • Requires Commonwealth Edison and Ameren Illinois—the state’s two biggest electric utilities—to dramatically expand their energy efficiency programs and reduce electricity waste, lowering Illinois power bills by billions of dollars through 2030.
                              • Expands the definition of “low income” beyond just people who qualify for state assistance and directs the utilities to engage with economically disadvantaged communities in designing and delivering new programs for customers most challenged to pay bills.
                              • Amends Illinois’ renewable energy laws, which will spark billions of dollars in new investment to develop wind and solar power in Illinois.
                              • Creates a community solar program that will allow entire neighborhoods to enjoy the benefits of solar energy, whether they can install solar panels on their rooftops or not.
                              • Devotes $750 million to programs that provide training for new energy jobs and help consumers cut their utility bills.
                              • Improves the state’s on-bill financing program, which helps people pay for efficiency upgrades through their utility bills.

                            Further Reading

                            Key Figures

                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                            220.9

                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                            🅲 Commercial: 6.84%
                            🅴 Electric: 30.30%
                            🆁 Residential: 11.59%
                            🅸 Industrial: 18.74%
                            🆃 Transportation: 32.52%
                            🅾 Other: 0%

                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                            25

                            Climate Goals

                            Illinois established its legally enforceable mandates in 2007 to reduce emissions

                            By 2020:

                            Return to 1990 levels

                            By 2050:

                            60%

                            below 1990 levels

                            Carbon Pricing Status

                            Under consideration at the legislative level

                            Indiana

                            Indiana has struggled to gain momentum on climate action in the past. Power in the state is largely sourced from fossil fuels, with coal fueling 59% of the state’s net electricity generation, making it difficult for the state to transition over to renewable energy for economic and ideological reasons. In the 2021 legislative session, the state legislators passed the preemptive HB 1191, stripping the rights of local governments to prohibit energy resources and infrastructure.

                            More on Indiana

                            2021 Legislation

                            • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 4th and adjourned on April 29th.
                            • HB 1191 (2021)
                              • Establishes that local governments do not have the power to require energy standards for privately-owned buildings
                              • Establishes that local governments do not have the power to ban utility-owned electricity resources or the sale of vehicles, home equipment, or an array of other products
                              • Status: Enrolled 4/29/21
                            • SB 373 (2021)
                              • Establishes a framework for a voluntary carbon offset market in Indiana
                              • Creates a program where farmers or private landowners could get paid for sequestering greenhouse gases in their soil
                              • Status: Enrolled 4/19/21

                            Political Context

                            • Indiana has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                            • Republicans have a veto-proof supermajority in both the House (71-29) and the Senate (39-11).
                            • Republican Gov. Eric Holcomb did not include environmental issues in his 2019 policy agenda, but he has focused policy goals on the need to address Indiana’s water infrastructure. During the 2020 gubernatorial race, Gv. Holcomb stated, when asked about climate change, “While the extent of the contribution is debatable… it’s reasonable to assume that human activity contributes to changes in our climate over time.”

                              Past Legislation 

                              • Voluntary Clean Energy Portfolio Standard Program (IC 8-1-37) (2011)
                                • Indiana’s utilities receive an incentive to increase the amount of renewable energy sources in their portfolio on a sliding scale. For program participants, this means the electricity they provide their customers will include an average of 4% from renewable sources between 2013 and 2019.  Beginning in 2019, that percentage jumps to 7% and stays at that level until the end of 2024.  In 2025, the percentage goes up and stays at 10%.

                              Emission Reduction Target 

                              • N/A

                              Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                              • By 2025: 10% clean energy (voluntary)

                              Further Reading 

                              Key Figures

                              • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Indiana? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                              Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                              197.0

                              Emissions by Sector (%)

                              🅲 Commercial: 3.06%
                              🅴 Electric: 45.69%
                              🆁 Residential: 4.61%
                              🅸 Industrial: 24.47%
                              🆃 Transportation: 22.17%
                              🅾 Other: 0%

                              Emissions Intensity Ranking

                              States from lowest to highest intensity

                              42

                              Climate Goals

                              No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                              Carbon Pricing Status

                              Not yet considered

                              Iowa

                              Despite being a leader in wind energy, producing the highest percentage of electricity produced by wind (36%), Iowa has struggled to make headway on climate policy. In 1983, Iowa became the first state in the U.S. to adopt a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) by enacting the Alternative Energy Law. The Iowa Future Caucus, a bipartisan, bicameral group of four Iowa state legislators, has been exploring ways to grow the state’s renewable energy industry.

                              More on Iowa

                              2021 Legislation

                              • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 11th, 2021, and adjourned on April 20th, 2021.
                              • HF 555 
                                • Prohibits counties and cities from restricting the sale of natural gas and propane services.
                                • Status: Enrolled and signed by Governor on 4/12/21

                              Political Context

                              • Republicans hold a state government trifecta in Iowa. 
                              • Republicans have a majority in the House (59-41) and the Senate (32-18). 
                              • Governor Kim Reynolds (R) has no formal environmental policy, and has supported many of Trump’s decisions to decrease federal environmental regulations, specifically on coal production; she has also denied Attorney General Tom Miller’s requests to join many national cases relating to climate and the environment.

                                Past Legislation

                                • Senate File 583 (2020)
                                  • Allows each utility to choose whether to offer net billing (similar to the current net metering) or an inflow-outflow billing method to all customers installing new generation.
                                  • Calls for a Value of Solar study to be created through a stakeholder process overseen by the Iowa Utilities Board and utilizing an independent third party consultant.

                                Emission Reduction Target 

                                • N/A

                                Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                • By 1990: 105 megawatts of renewable energy production (surpassed)

                                Further Reading 

                                Key Figures

                                • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Iowa? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                137.5

                                Emissions by Sector (%)

                                🅲 Commercial: 2.80%
                                🅴 Electric: 22.45%
                                🆁 Residential: 3.63%
                                🅸 Industrial: 22.26%
                                🆃 Transportation: 14.84%
                                🅾 Other: 34.01%

                                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                States from lowest to highest intensity

                                39

                                Climate Goals

                                No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                Carbon Pricing Status

                                Not yet considered

                                Kansas

                                Kansas has not made significant progress on climate action. Governor Laura Kelly (D) acknowledges climate change and has said her efforts will focus on working with the state’s Congressional delegation and other Western governors to find solutions. She has expressed support for more renewable energy use in the state, particularly wind energy. 

                                Wind is currently the largest energy source in Kansas,  with 41% of the state’s electricity coming from wind energy, surpassing the proportion of coal by 8% in 2019. Kansas wind farms are not only largely responsible for the state’s  40% decline in carbon emissions, but they have also generated $1.51 billion dollars in direct economic benefits for landowners and counties. In 2019, against an earlier effort to dissolve the state’s renewable portfolio standard (RPS) entirely, advocates were able to solidify keeping the RPS as a voluntary goal for electric utilities, in an effort to keep momentum towards renewable energy sourcing going. 

                                More on Kansas

                                2021 Legislation

                                • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 11th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourned on May 15th, 2021.
                                • HB 2072 – Lowering Utility Rates with Securitized Ratepayer-Backed Bonds 
                                  • Provides for the Kansas Corporation Commission to authorize the securitization of utility assets to recover energy transition costs for electric public utilities.
                                    • Also allows electric and natural gas public utilities to pursue securitization to help finance qualified extraordinary expenses, such as fuel costs incurred during extreme weather events.
                                    • Status: Approved by Governor on 4/9/21
                                • HB 2145 – Exempting Electric Vehicle Charging from Utility Classification 
                                  • Exempts the retail sale of electricity by public utilities for electric vehicle charging stations from the jurisdiction of the state corporation commission
                                  •  Status: Approved for Governor on 4/9/21
                                • SB 24 – Gas Protection Act 
                                  • Purpose: (Bad bill) passed in Senate and House, prohibiting municipalities from imposing restrictions on customer’s use of energy based upon source of energy
                                  • Status: Set to become law without Governor’s signature on 4/9/21
                                • HB 2381 – Creating the State Energy Plan Task Force 
                                  • Establishes the state energy plan task force to develop a comprehensive state energy plan.
                                  • Status: Committee Report recommended bill be passed as amended by Committee on Energy, Utilities and Telecommunication on 2/25/21
                                • SB 279 – Wind Generation Permit and Property Protection Act 
                                  • Proposes heavier regulation with spacing of wind turbines, sound output, and much greater setback distance requirement.
                                  • Status: Kept in Committee on Utilities after 3 days of hearings 3/22/21-3/23/21.
                                • HB 2291 – Let Solar Shine Act 
                                  • Applies the net metering and easy connection act to electric cooperatives and municipal utilities, increases compensation to customer-generators, authorizes larger renewable energy systems, and increases the total net metered facility cap.
                                  • Status: Referred to Committee on Energy, Utilities and Telecommunications on 2/10/21
                                • HB 2330 – Third Party Purchasing Agreements for Solar (for Nonprofits) 
                                  • Authorizes solar power purchase agreements with renewable energy suppliers.
                                  • Exempts the sales of electricity pursuant to power purchase agreements from public utility regulation.
                                  • Status: Referred to Committee on Energy, Utilities and Telecommunication on 2/10/21
                                • HB 2290 – Carbon Tax for Universal Basic Income 
                                  • Requires the secretary of health and environment to assess carbon content fees upon certain fuel sales and the secretary of the department of revenue to distribute carbon content dividend payments to Kansans.
                                  • Status: Referred to Committee on Energy, Utilities and Telecommunications on 2/9/21

                                Political Context

                                • Republicans have an 84-41 supermajority in the Kansas House of Representatives, and a 29-11 supermajority in the State Senate. 
                                • Upon her election, Democratic Governor Laura Kelly said that her administration would make an effort to address climate change through the channels of Kansas’s congressional delegation and through western governors. She promised to push for more renewable energy usage in Kansas, and the most progressive action her administration has taken in line with this idea was submitting an executive reorganization order (ERO 46) in January 2020 to move the Energy Office out of the Kansas Corporation (KCC) into a separate, independent entity, as a “first step toward a comprehensive state energy plan….focused on implementing an inclusive, date-driven vision for the energy future of our State,” Kelly said. ERO 46 was rejected and formally disapproved by the Republican-controlled Kansas House in March 2020 with HR 6030.

                                  Past Legislation 

                                  • House Bill No. 2369 (2009)
                                    • Required the state’s investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives to generate or purchase 20% of the affected utility’s peak demand from eligible renewable resources for each calendar year beginning in 2020.
                                    • S.B. 91 (2015) changed the renewable energy standard to a voluntary goal.

                                  Emission Reduction Target 

                                  • N/A

                                  Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                  • By 2020: 20% from renewable sources (voluntary goal)

                                  Further Reading 

                                  Key Figures

                                  • Rep. Annie Kuether
                                  • Rep. Xu
                                  • Rep. Christina Haswood
                                  • Kansas Sierra Club Zack Pistora
                                  • Kansas Climate and Energy Project Dorothy Barnett
                                  • Build Power Mokan
                                  • Sunrise Movement Lawrence, Kansas
                                  • Kansas Rural Center
                                  • Kansas Interfaith Action
                                  • Kansas Farmers Union
                                  • Climate Action KC

                                    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                    64.7

                                    Emissions by Sector (%)

                                    🅲 Commercial: 4.11%
                                    🅴 Electric: 35.67%
                                    🆁 Residential: 6.67%
                                    🅸 Industrial: 22.85%
                                    🆃 Transportation: 30.70%
                                    🅾 Other: 0%

                                    Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                    States from lowest to highest intensity

                                    34

                                    Climate Goals

                                    No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                    Carbon Pricing Status

                                    Not yet considered

                                    Kentucky

                                    Kentucky is a state that struggles to make headway on climate progress due to a large reliance on coal for energy production and jobs, although there have been attempts to increase the state’s renewable energy production. In the 2020 legislative session, a bill (HB 213) that would establish renewable portfolio standard (RPS) targets in the state was introduced, with a goal of 2.25% clean energy by 2021 and 12.5% by 2029; the bill did not make it out of committee. In the 2021 legislative session, few climate bills were introduced, but one which passed was HB 207, effectively prohibiting local governments from imposing environmental regulations on utilities.

                                    More on Kentucky

                                    2021 Legislation

                                    • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 5th, 2021 and adjourned on March 30th.
                                    • HB 207
                                      • Prohibits local governments from taking legislative or executive action that impairs or restricts a consumer’s ability to use a utility service.
                                      • Status: Signed by Governor on 3/25/21
                                    • HB 107
                                      • Proposes the creation of a new section in the state’s Constitution to be submitted to votes for ratification or rejection which: 
                                        • Establishes the right of the people to a clean and healthy environment.
                                        • Establishes that the Commonwealth serves as a trustee for the conservation and maintenance of the environment and its natural resources for the benefit of all people
                                      • Status: Introduced in the House to Committee on Committees on 1/5/21; has not been referred to a committee
                                    • HB 127
                                      • Proposes the inclusion of rate affordability in the determination of fair, just, and reasonable utility rates.
                                      • Proposes allowing the Public Service Commission to review the affordability of a utility’s rate if the utility has not requested a rate adjustment in five years.
                                      • Proposes allowing the Commission to order a rate increase to prevent significant increases in a single period.
                                      • Proposes requiring fair, just, and reasonable rates to balance the interests of the utility, its investors, and the ratepayer.
                                      • Status: Introduced in the House to Committee on Committees on 1/5/21; has not been referred to a committee

                                    Political Context

                                    • Republicans have a veto-proof supermajority in both the House (75-25) and the Senate (30-8). 
                                    • Democratic Gov. Andy Beshear, who entered office on December 10th, 2019, recognizes the need to address climate change impacts and supports diversifying the state’s energy generation with “an all-the-above energy policy that includes renewables and any jobs that will create.” His election, albeit by a narrow margin, potentially marked the beginning of a change in the state’s political landscape, which normally centers promises of restoring coal at the center of election campaigns. In this deep red state, Democratic Gov. Beshear ran with ideas related to a Kentucky future involving a transition into a post-coal economy.

                                      Past Legislation

                                      • Incentives for Energy Independence Act (2007)
                                          • Establishes tax incentives for businesses to build or refurbish facilities with renewable energy sources
                                          • Defines a renewable energy facility as a building that generates at least 50 kilowatts (kW) of electricity from solar energy or at least 1 megawatt (MW) of electricity from wind energy, biomass, landfill methane gas, or hydroelectric power. 
                                          • Requires that companies invest a minimum of $1 million in capital expenditures, including labor costs, before they can apply for a tax credit. Tax credits can include the following:
                                            • A tax credit for up to 100 percent of Kentucky income tax or the limited liability entity tax
                                            • A sales or use tax credit of up to 100 percent
                                            • A wage assessment credit of up to 4 percent for associated employees

                                      Emission Reduction Target

                                      • N/A

                                      Renewable Portfolio Standard

                                      • N/A

                                      Further Reading 

                                      Key Figures

                                      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Kentucky? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                      126.6

                                      Emissions by Sector (%)

                                      🅲 Commercial: 2.29%
                                      🅴 Electric: 52.89%
                                      🆁 Residential: 2.64%
                                      🅸 Industrial: 14.24%
                                      🆃 Transportation: 27.94%
                                      🅾 Other: 0%

                                      Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                      States from lowest to highest intensity

                                      44

                                      Climate Goals

                                      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                      Carbon Pricing Status

                                      Not yet considered

                                      Louisiana

                                      Louisiana is a state with a divided government and a climate that is dramatically impacted by climate change. Under the leadership of Governor John Bel Edwards (D), the state is preparing strategies to relocate vulnerable communities from sea level rise and flooding. In 2020, the Governor established the Climate Initiatives Task Force to respond to climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions with input by industry leaders and grassroots organizations. However, the Governor did not list climate or environmental issues on his Legislative Agenda for the 2021 session.

                                      Coastal resilience has been a priority in Louisiana for several years. The state’s most recent Coastal Master Plan was released in 2017, with an update scheduled to arrive for 2023.

                                      More on Louisiana

                                      2021 Legislation

                                      • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on April 12th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 10th, 2021.

                                      Political Context

                                      • Republicans have a majority in the House (68-35) and the Senate (27-12). . 
                                      • Democratic Gov. John Bel Edwards was supportive of both the oil and gas industry in his 2020 reelection campaign, but he noted that sea level rise and flooding pose a major risk to Louisiana. His support for coastal action prompted state stakeholders to question his support for the oil and gas industry, even stating that the Governor declared “war” on the industry.  In February of 2020, he stated that “Louisiana will do its part to address climate change” and called for the creation of a task force to formulate the next steps that the state will take to reduce emissions. 
                                      • Governor Edwards established the Climate Initiatives Task Force via Executive Order in August 2020. This Task Force has put out a public call for emissions reductions proposals and opened up their first report to public comment, which both close on April 30th, 2021. . The Order also established emissions reductions goals, including the target of net-zero by 2050.
                                      • Governor Edwards is also very focused on coastal resilience, establishing a Chief Resilience Officer through the passage of Executive Order NO. JBE 20-19. This position is meant to “further coordinate a cross-agency effort to build coastal resilience.”

                                      Past Legislation

                                      • N/A

                                      Emission Reduction Target 

                                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Target

                                      • N/A

                                        Further Reading 

                                        Key Figures

                                        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Louisiana? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                        251.6

                                        Emissions by Sector (%)

                                        🅲 Commercial: 1.00%
                                        🅴 Electric: 12.95%
                                        🆁 Residential: 0.87%
                                        🅸 Industrial: 65.32%
                                        🆃 Transportation: 19.87%
                                        🅾 Other: 0%

                                        Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                        States from lowest to highest intensity

                                        47

                                        Climate Goals

                                        By 2025:

                                        26–28%

                                        below 2005 levels

                                        By 2030:

                                        40–50%

                                        below 2005 levels

                                        By 2050:

                                        net zero

                                        Carbon Pricing Status

                                        Not yet considered

                                        Maine

                                        For eight years, Gov. Paul Lepage (R) largely opposed strong climate action, but the election of Gov. Janet Mills (D) in 2019 spurred fresh excitement for the climate movement. Maine is a part of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and has been involved in discussions surrounding the Transportation Climate Initiative, although it hasn’t officially joined.

                                        On June 26, 2019, Maine passed “An Act To Promote Clean Energy Jobs and To Establish the Maine Climate Council” (LD 1679) with bipartisan support in the legislature. A Four-Year Plan for Climate Action was presented to the Governor by the Council on December 1, 2020 outlining strategies to achieve emissions reductions, including achieving carbon neutrality by 2045. Gov. Mills also signed LD 1494 to increase Maine’s RPS to 80% by 2030 and set a goal of 100% clean energy by 2050.

                                        Advocacy groups and activists are incredibly active in Maine’s climate policy sphere. Some influential organizations include Maine Climate Action Now, Sierra Club Maine, and the Maine Environmental Education Association. Youth-led activists make up Maine Youth For Climate Justice, a coalition that organizes to demand climate justice on various fronts.

                                        More on Maine

                                        2021 Legislation

                                        • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on December 2nd, 2020 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 16th, 2021.
                                        • LD 489: Pine Tree Amendment
                                          • Changes Maine’s constitution to provide the right to a healthy environment. 
                                          • Establishes that the state shall conserve, protect, and maintain the state’s natural resources for the benefit of all the people.
                                          • Status: Passed to be engrossed on 4/28/2021
                                        • LD 2: Act To Require the Inclusion of Racial Impact Statements in the Legislative Process
                                          • Requires that the Legislative Council develop a study to determine the best way to enact racial impact statements in future legislation.
                                          • Status: Passed to be enacted on 3/12/2021
                                        • LD 226: An Act To Limit the Use of Hydrofluorocarbons To Fight Climate Change
                                          • Proposes the reduction of the use of high-global warming potential hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by replacing them with climate-friendly alternatives where available.
                                          • Sets a timetable for transition to climate-friendly alternatives beginning in 2022.
                                          • Status: Joint Committee reported out: Ought To Pass as Amended/Ought Not To Pass on 5/19/21
                                        • LD 1708
                                          • Proposes the creation of the Pine Tree Power Company, a nonprofit utility, to deliver lower rates, reliability, and local control for Maine energy independence.
                                          • Status: Referred to the Committee on Energy, Utilities and Technology on 5/13/2020
                                        • LD 1256: An Act Requiring Climate Impact Notes on Proposed Legislation and Agency Rules
                                          • Proposes the requirement that all future legislation provides an analysis of possible climate impacts.
                                          • Status: Joint Committee voted, Divided Report on 5/3/20
                                          • LD 489: Pine Tree Amendment
                                            • Changes Maine’s constitution to provide the right to a healthy environment. 
                                            • Establishes that the state shall conserve, protect, and maintain the state’s natural resources for the benefit of all the people.
                                            • Status: Passed to be engrossed on 4/28/2021
                                          • LD 2: Act To Require the Inclusion of Racial Impact Statements in the Legislative Process
                                            • Requires that the Legislative Council develop a study to determine the best way to enact racial impact statements in future legislation.
                                            • Status: Passed to be enacted on 3/12/2021
                                          • LD 226: An Act To Limit the Use of Hydrofluorocarbons To Fight Climate Change
                                            • Proposes the reduction of the use of high-global warming potential hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by replacing them with climate-friendly alternatives where available.
                                            • Sets a timetable for transition to climate-friendly alternatives beginning in 2022.
                                            • Status: Joint Committee reported out: Ought To Pass as Amended/Ought Not To Pass on 5/19/21
                                          • LD 1708
                                            • Proposes the creation of the Pine Tree Power Company, a nonprofit utility, to deliver lower rates, reliability, and local control for Maine energy independence.
                                            • Status: Referred to the Committee on Energy, Utilities and Technology on 5/13/2020
                                          • LD 1256: An Act Requiring Climate Impact Notes on Proposed Legislation and Agency Rules
                                            • Proposes the requirement that all future legislation provides an analysis of possible climate impacts.
                                            • Status: Joint Committee voted, Divided Report on 5/3/20

                                        Political Context

                                        • Maine has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                                        • Democratic Gov. Janet Mills has signaled climate action is a top priority for her administration. She joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in February 2019.
                                        • Democrats hold sizable majorities in both the Senate (22–13) and House (80–67–4).

                                          Emission Reduction Targets

                                          • By 2030: 45% below 1990 levels
                                          • By 2050: 80% below 1990 levels 
                                          • By 2045: voluntary goal of carbon neutrality

                                          Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                          • By 2030: 80% from renewable sources
                                          • By 2050: 100% from renewable sources

                                          Past Legislation 

                                          • LD 1679: An Act To Promote Clean Energy Jobs and To Establish the Maine Climate Council (2019)
                                            • Establishes the Main Climate Council, which is responsible for developing policies to reduce Maine’s carbon emissions by 45% by 2030 and by 80% by 2050 and releasing a climate action plan with recommendations for such policies and strategies.
                                          • LD 1494:An Act to Reform Maine’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (2019)
                                            • Increases Maine’s RPS to 80% by 2030 and set a goal of 100% clean energy by 2050.
                                          • LD 1282: An Act to Establish a Green New Deal for Maine (2019)
                                            • Creates guidelines for hiring from apprenticeship programs and installing solar on new schools built in the future.

                                            Further Reading

                                            Key Figures

                                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                            17.8

                                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                                            🅲 Commercial: 10.11%
                                            🅴 Electric: 6.36%
                                            🆁 Residential: 17.84%
                                            🅸 Industrial: 10.82%
                                            🆃 Transportation: 44.88%
                                            🅾 Other: 9.99%

                                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                                            16

                                            Climate Goals

                                            Maine updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

                                            By 2030:

                                            45%

                                            below 1990 levels

                                            By 2050:

                                            80%

                                            below 1990 levels

                                            Carbon Pricing Status

                                            Enacted on the regional level:

                                            Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                            Under consideration on the regional level:

                                            Transportation and Climate Initiative

                                            Maryland

                                            Both a prominent member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and a driver in the Transportation and Climate Initiative development process, Maryland has shown promising progress on climate policy in recent years. In 2019, the Clean Energy Jobs Act passed, increasing Maryland’s renewable energy portfolio standard and expanded solar and wind energy targets.

                                            The Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act (GGRA) passed in 2009, requiring the State to reduce GHG emissions 25 percent from a 2006 baseline by 2020. It was updated in 2015 to add a new benchmark requiring a 40% reduction of emissions from 2006 levels by 2030.  In February, the state released its 2030 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act Plan, which calls for a goal of 50% reductions by 2030, as recommended by the Maryland Commission on Climate Change. 

                                            According to a World Resources Institute report published in August 2020, Maryland leads the nation in the amount of emissions reductions (38%) and simultaneous growth of GDP (18%) in a 12 year period.

                                            More on Maryland

                                            2021 Legislation

                                            • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 13th, 2021 and adjourned on April 12th, 2021.
                                            • HB 33: The Climate Crisis and Education Act (CCEA)
                                              • Sets new statewide GHG emission reduction goals: 60% by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2045.
                                              • Establishes three separate funds for green infrastructure, household and employer benefits, and education in the state.
                                              • Gradually increases the price of carbon pollution while including a no-pass through provision that protects consumers.
                                              • Incentivizes renewable energy, creating jobs nearby, economic vitality, and huge investments in public goods.
                                              • Status: House Economic Matters Committee gave an Unfavorable Report on 3/17/21
                                                • 7 out of 8 women on the Committee voted favorably; only 1 man voted favorably.
                                              • Read about the Rebuild Maryland Coalition, which introduced CCEA and fights for equitable climate policy in MD.
                                            • SB 414: Climate Solutions Now Act of 2021
                                              • Requires statewide GHG emissions reduction by 60% from 2006 levels by 2030; requires net-zero statewide GHG emissions by 2045
                                              • Requires the Maryland Department of Labor to adopt regulations to establish certain energy conservation requirements for certain buildings
                                              • Establishes a goal of planting and helping to maintain 5,000,000 trees of species native to the State by the end of 2030
                                              • Status: Engrossed on 3/12/21; House Conference Committee appointed on 4/12/21

                                            Political Context

                                            • Republican Gov. Hogan is one of 25 governors who has joined the bipartisan U.S. Climate Alliance. Hogan’s administration has their own renewable energy plan, called the Clean and Renewable Energy Standard (CARES), which will set Maryland on a path to 100% clean energy by 2040.
                                            • Democrats currently hold significant majorities in the House (99-42) and Senate (32-15).

                                            Emission Reduction Targets

                                            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                            • By 2030: 50% from renewable sources, including 14.5% solar and adding at least 1,200 MW of offshore wind
                                            • By 2040: a goal of 100% clean energy

                                            Past Legislation

                                            • Clean Energy Jobs Act (SB 516) 2019
                                              • Increases Maryland’s renewable portfolio standard to 50% by 2030 and sets a goal of 100% clean energy by 2040. 
                                              • Expands solar energy requirements and more than doubles the state’s offshore wind target.

                                              Further Reading

                                              Key Figures

                                              Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                              82.8

                                              Emissions by Sector (%)

                                              🅲 Commercial: 7.52%
                                              🅴 Electric: 20.32%
                                              🆁 Residential: 8.44%
                                              🅸 Industrial: 16.06%
                                              🆃 Transportation: 42.35%
                                              🅾 Other: 5.31%

                                              Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                              States from lowest to highest intensity

                                              4

                                              Climate Goals

                                              Maryland updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2016 to reduce emissions

                                              By 2030:

                                              40%

                                              below 2006 levels

                                              Carbon Pricing Status

                                              Enacted on the regional level:

                                              Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                              Under consideration on the regional level:

                                              Transportation and Climate Initiative

                                              Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                                              Massachusetts

                                              Massachusetts is a regional and national leader on state climate policy, with policies like carbon pricing and new emissions limits pioneering on multiple policy fronts. 

                                              In January 2020 the Senate passed a series of bills, known as the Next Generation Climate Bills, which included a new net-zero emissions requirement for the state and an economy-wide carbon price. The House followed with its own climate bill in July 2020, modeled after Rep. Meschino’s 2050 Roadmap bill. The Next Generation Climate bill was passed by the Massachusetts legislature at the end of the session, but was vetoed by Governor Baker. The bill was refiled in the 2021 session and has since been passed again by the legislature and signed by Governor Baker.

                                              Meanwhile, the Governor continues to move forward with his own separate plans to update the state’s emissions limits, hoping to fulfill a promise he made to get the state to net-zero emissions by 2050. The administration released their Massachusetts 2050 Decarbonization Roadmap in December 2020. A notable difference between the Roadmap and the Next Generation Climate bill is a 45% reduction target from 1990 emissions levels by 2030 in the Roadmap compared to a 50% reduction by 2030 in the bill. 

                                              In December 2020, Massachusetts joined Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Washington, DC to sign the Transportation and Climate Initiative, a regional cap-and-trade program for the transportation sector.

                                              More on Massachusetts

                                              2021 Legislation

                                              • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 6th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on December 31st, 2021.
                                              • S.9 – An Act Creating a Next-Generation Roadmap for Massachusetts Climate Policy
                                                • Updates the GHG emissions limits related to the 2008 Global Warming Solutions Act:
                                                  • Commits the state to achieve net zero emissions by 2050.
                                                  • Authorizes the Secretary of Energy and Environmental Affairs (EEA) to establish an emissions limit of no less than 50% for 2030, and no less than 75% for 2040.
                                                  • Authorizes EEA to establish emissions limits every 5 years.
                                                • Statutorily defines environmental justice and environmental burdens, including climate change as an environmental burden.
                                                • Expands Massachusetts Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) review to require an Environmental Impact Report for all projects impacting air quality within one mile of an Environmental Justice Neighborhood.
                                                • Requires the Department of Environmental Protection to conduct a stakeholder process to develop a cumulative impact analysis as a condition of permitting certain projects.
                                                • Authorizes the Commonwealth to procure an additional 2,400 MW of offshore wind power, increased the state’s total required authorization to 4,000 MW by 2027.
                                                • Establishes new energy efficiency requirements for commercial kitchen equipment, plumbing, lighting, computers, and other appliances and equipment.
                                                • Status: Signed by the Governor on 3/26/21
                                              • HD 1972 – The Green Future Act
                                                • Eliminates the pollution fee loophole used by out-of-state fossil fuel importers, and raises $500-750 million per year.
                                                • Establishes a $500 million green bonding program as part of the state’s annual capital budget process.
                                                • Establishes the Green Infrastructure Fund (GIF), investing billions of dollars in projects like electrifying transportation, increasing renewable energy, and creating consumer heating efficiency rebates.
                                                • Directs significant aid to all cities and towns, funding critical local green infrastructure that lowers emissions and prepares communities for climate change impacts. 
                                                • Establishes the Green Workforce Commission to guide training and development of a 21st century clean energy and green workforce.
                                                • Provides direct cash payments (“Green Household Dividends”) to lower income households.
                                                • Invests $4.5+ billion in green future infrastructure spending benefits environmental justice neighborhoods across the state. 
                                                • Status: Referred to the Committee on Telecommunications, Utilities and Energy on 3/29/21

                                              Political Context

                                              • Republican Gov. Charlie Baker has put most of his weight behind climate resiliency and adaptation measures to address climate change impacts, and he has been criticized for not taking aggressive enough action against climate change.
                                              • Democrats hold veto-proof supermajorities in the House (129-30) and Senate (37-3).
                                              • Investing in much needed transportation infrastructure across the state has emerged as a key issue this legislative session. Carbon pricing is a strong candidate for transportation revenue.

                                              Emission Reduction Targets

                                              Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                              • By 2030: 35% from renewable sources

                                              Past Legislation

                                              • S.2995 – An Act Creating A Next-Generation Roadmap for Massachusetts Climate Policy (vetoed)
                                                • Proposed establishing a 2050 goal for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions, with statewide limits set every 5 years.
                                                • Proposed increasing the requirements for offshore wind energy procurement to a statewide total of 5,600 MW.
                                                • Proposed requiring emission reduction goals for MassSave, the state’s energy efficiency program.
                                                • Proposed, for the first time, establishing the criteria in statute that define environmental justice populations.
                                                • Proposed increasing support for clean energy workforce development programs, including those targeting low-income communities.
                                                • Status: Passed the House and Senate; enacted and laid before the Governor on 1/4/21; pocket vetoed by the Governor on 1/14/21.
                                              • H.832: 2050 Roadmap Bill (2019)
                                                • Makes the 2050 state-wide emissions limit stronger by replacing the current goal of 80% below 1990 levels to net-zero.
                                                • Creates new intermediate emissions targets of 50% reduction by 2030, and 75% by 2040.
                                                • Specifically authorizes the Governor to enact carbon pricing, which opens the door for the current or future Governor to include a fee-and-rebate program. 
                                                • Requires the Governor to develop an emissions reduction ‘roadmap’ plan every two and a half years, instead of every five. The plan is required to detail each source of GHGs and how it will be reduced to meet the 2050 net-zero mandate. Each roadmap must include proposed policies, regulations, and legislative recommendations. It also requires another annual report quantitatively assessing the effectiveness of regulations and programs at reducing GHG emissions.
                                                • In promulgating new regulations, the Governor is required to take into account the impact on low and moderate income and environmental justice populations.
                                                • Status: Accompanied a new draft, H.3983 on 7/22/19
                                              • S2500: An Act Setting Next Generation Climate Policy (2020)
                                                • Allows future gubernatorial administrations to decide the specific carbon pricing mechanism to be used but mandates sector-specific deadlines for coverage: transportation by 2022, non-residential buildings by 2025, and residential buildings by 2030.
                                                • Introduced and passed in conjunction with bills S2476 and S2478, which focus on energy efficiency standards, 100% electric MBTA buses by 2040, and state-wide vehicle electrification.
                                                • Status: Passed in the Senate, referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means on 2/10/20

                                                Further Reading

                                                Key Figures

                                                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                75.5

                                                Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                🅲 Commercial: 10.60%
                                                🅴 Electric: 13.60%
                                                🆁 Residential: 18.04%
                                                🅸 Industrial: 7.01%
                                                🆃 Transportation: 43.46%
                                                🅾 Other: 7.29%

                                                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                2

                                                Climate Goals

                                                Massachusetts established its legally enforceable mandates in 2008 to reduce emissions

                                                By 2020:

                                                25%

                                                below 1990 levels

                                                By 2050:

                                                85%

                                                below 1990 levels

                                                By 2050:

                                                Net Zero

                                                Carbon Pricing Status

                                                Enacted on the regional level:

                                                Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                                Under consideration on the regional level:

                                                Transportation and Climate Initiative

                                                Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                                                Michigan

                                                Although Michigan has not been a historic leader on climate, Governor Gretchen Whitmer (D), elected in 2019, has made meaningful progress. Through a series of executive orders, Whitmer has established a Council on Climate Solutions tasked with formulating and implementing a Michigan Healthy Climate Plan by the end of 2021, and she has also established a new Office of Climate and Energy that will work to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable energy solutions. Michigan is one of the latest to join the United States Climate Alliance.

                                                More on Michigan

                                                2021 Legislation

                                                • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 13th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on December 31, 2021.
                                                • HB 4236
                                                  • Proposes lifting the cap on the number of Michigan residents that can send their excess renewable energy to the grid for profit.
                                                  • Status: Referred to Committee on Energy on 2/11/21
                                                • HB 47154716
                                                  • Proposed removing barriers to the development of small-scale local solar projects, allowing people and small businesses to receive their energy from community solar projects outside their property and get credits on their electricity bills for the clean energy generated.
                                                  • Status: Referred to Committee on Energy on 4/27/21
                                                • HB 4314
                                                  • Proposes requiring polluters to restore land and water to standards good enough for residential land use or drinking water.
                                                    • Would amend current law which requires only that access be limited and corporate landowners pay to contain the land and water pollution within their property.
                                                  • 49/109 Representatives are co-sponsoring the bill.
                                                  • Status: Referred to Committee on Natural Resources and Outdoor Recreation on 2/23/21
                                                • HB 4777 and SB 439
                                                  • Propose requiring a public hearing and a minimum of 45 days reviewing and considering public comment before making decisions in the permitting process.
                                                  • Propose requiring the state to consider existing sources of pollution in an overburdened community when making a permitting decision.
                                                  • Propose requiring the state to deny new construction if it makes an overburdened community’s health worse, and requiring the state to impose sanctions if expansions or renovations have a similar effect.
                                                  • Status: HB 4777 referred to Committee on Natural Resources and Outdoor Recreation on 5/4/21; SB 439 referred to Committee on Environmental Quality on 5/12/21
                                                • SB 147
                                                  • Proposes repealing the “no stricter than federal” bill which prohibits a state department from promulgating rules more stringent than required by federal standards, for the sake of setting high drinking water standards.
                                                  • Status: Referred to Committee on Oversight on 2/18/21

                                                Political Context

                                                • Gov. Gretchen Whitmer (D) has made addressing climate change a top priority for her administration, as she has brought Michigan into the U.S. Climate Alliance and established a Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy, which houses the new Office of Climate and Energy.
                                                • Republicans currently hold majorities in both the House (58-52) and Senate (22-16).
                                                • With the passage of Executive Directive 2019-12, Michigan joined the US Climate Alliance, committing the state to the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement.
                                                • With the passage of Executive Order No. 2020-182, Gov. Whitmer established the Council on Climate Solutions as an advisory body within the Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy to formulate and oversee the implementation of the MI Healthy Climate Plan.

                                                  Past Legislation 

                                                  • N/A

                                                  Emission Reduction Targets 

                                                  • By 2025: 26-28% reduction below 2005 levels 
                                                  • By 2050: carbon neutrality

                                                  Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                  • By 2021: 15% from renewable sources
                                                  • By 2025: 35% from energy waste reduction and renewable energy (voluntary goal)
                                                  • In 2018, a pro-renewable energy coalition, Clean Energy, Healthy Michigan, launched a ballot initiative to increase the state’s RPS to 30% renewable energy by 2030 and received over 350,000 signatures. In May 2018, however, the coalition reached an agreement with the state’s two largest utilities committing them to a 50% clean energy standard by 2030 but setting aside their plans to submit the ballot.

                                                  Further Reading

                                                  Key Figures

                                                  • Gov. Gretchen Whitmer
                                                  • Rep. Laurie Pohutsky
                                                  • Rep. Yousef Rabhi
                                                  • Sen. Rosemary Bayer
                                                  • Rep. Abdullah Hammoud
                                                  • Rep. Rachel Hood
                                                  • Rep. Matt Koleszar
                                                  • Sen. Stephanie Chang
                                                  • Sen. Jeff Irwin

                                                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                  168.1

                                                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                  🅲 Commercial: 6.89%
                                                  🅴 Electric: 34.75%
                                                  🆁 Residential: 12.79%
                                                  🅸 Industrial: 13.15%
                                                  🆃 Transportation: 49.5
                                                  🅾 Other: 0%

                                                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                  29

                                                  Climate Goals

                                                  Michigan established its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

                                                  By 2025:

                                                  26–28%

                                                  below 2005 levels

                                                  By 2050:

                                                  Carbon Neutrality

                                                  Carbon Pricing Status

                                                  Not yet considered

                                                  Minnesota

                                                  In recent years, Minnesota has made some progress on climate. In December 2019, Governor Tim Walz (D) issued an executive order to establish a Climate Change Subcabinet, which will determine policies to comply with the state’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets — set by the Next Generation Energy Act of 2007and achieve 100% clean energy by 2050. There is representation from 15 state agencies and boards on the Subcabinet, chaired by the Commissioner of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. The order also created an Advisory Council on Climate Change to advise the Subcabinet on opportunities for climate action.

                                                  In October 2020, the Minnesota House Climate Action Caucus released a Minnesota House Climate Action Plan, which sets a goal of a 45% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. The 100% Clean Energy Bill (HF 278) has been reintroduced in the 2021 legislative session. It would be a landmark climate policy in the state and includes an electric utility renewable energy standard that requires utilities use 100% carbon free energy by 2040 with a benchmark of 65% renewables by 2025. In 2019, the House passed a similar 100% free by 2040 bill that was blocked in the state Senate.

                                                  More on Minnesota

                                                  2021–2022 Legislation

                                                  • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 5th, 2021 and adjourned on May 17th, 2021.
                                                  • HF 278
                                                    • Proposes increasing the proportion of a utility’s retail electric sales that must be generated from renewable energy to 40% in 2025 and 55% in 2035.
                                                    • Proposes establishing a standard for carbon-free resources that reaches 100% in 2040.
                                                    • Status: Referred to Climate and Energy Finance and Policy Committee on 1/25/21
                                                  • HF 1428 – Next Generation Climate Act
                                                    • Proposes updates and expansions to the state’s emissions reduction targets from the 2007 Next Generation Energy Act to reflect current science:
                                                      • 45% by 2030
                                                      • Net zero by 2050
                                                    • Status: Referred to Climate and Energy Finance and Policy on 2/22/21

                                                  Political Context

                                                  • Democratic Gov. Tim Walz recognizes the existential nature of the threat of climate change and, in 2019, stated his intent for Minnesota to take action on climate issues in the face of federal inaction. . However, he has yet to take action on the controversial pipeline construction in the state that would infringe on Indigenous sovereign rights and increase carbon emissions.
                                                  • Republicans have a slight majority in the Senate (34-31-2), but Democrats have one in the House (70-64). 
                                                  • Minnesota joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in 2017.

                                                      Emission Reduction Targets 

                                                      • By 2015: 15% below 2005 levels (not achieved – emissions have decreased 8% from 2005-2021)
                                                      • By 2025: 30% below 2005 levels
                                                      • By 2050: 80% below 2005 levels

                                                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                      • By 2025: 26.5% from renewable energy sources for investor-owned utilities; 25% for all other utilities
                                                      • By 2050: 100% clean energy (voluntary goal)

                                                      Past Legislation

                                                      • Next Generation Energy Act (2007)
                                                        • Establishes GHG emissions reduction goals of 15% by 2015, 30% by 2025, and 80% by 2050.
                                                        • Endorses the Governor’s Minnesota Climate Change Advisory Group as the entity to develop a comprehensive GHG emission reduction plan to meet these goals.
                                                        • Transitions the state from energy efficiency spending goals to energy efficiency savings goals, effectively doubling the amount of energy saved by utilities.
                                                        • Expands and strengthens the state’s commitment to the development of locally-owned renewable energy projects.

                                                        Further Reading 

                                                        Key Figures

                                                        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                        172.0

                                                        Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                        🅲 Commercial: 4.77%
                                                        🅴 Electric: 22.88%
                                                        🆁 Residential: 7.17%
                                                        🅸 Industrial: 14.81%
                                                        🆃 Transportation: 25.95%
                                                        🅾 Other: 24.42%

                                                        Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                        States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                        26

                                                        Climate Goals

                                                        Minnesota established its legally enforceable mandates in 2007 to reduce emissions

                                                        By 2025:

                                                        30%

                                                        below 2005 levels

                                                        By 2050:

                                                        80%

                                                        below 2005 levels

                                                        Carbon Pricing Status

                                                        Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                                                        Mississippi

                                                        With a Republican state government trifecta, Mississippi has not made progress on climate action. 

                                                        In June 2019, the Mississippi Public Service Commission created an energy planning framework for how electricity companies will procure power in the future. Commission Chairman Brandon Presley has pushed for long-term plans that incorporate all energy sources and increase energy efficiency. Clean energy advocates are hopeful that this move will expand renewables, energy efficiency, and storage, and guide the state toward cleaner energy production.

                                                        More on Mississippi

                                                        2021 Legislation

                                                        • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 5th, 2021 and  adjourned on April 4th, 2021.

                                                        Political Context

                                                        • Republicans hold a state government trifecta in Mississippi. 
                                                        • Republicans hold a sizable majority in the House (75-46) and the Senate (36-16). 
                                                        • Republican Gov. Tate Reeves, who entered office on January 14, 2020, has expressed doubts over the human contribution to climate change.

                                                          Past Legislation 

                                                          • N/A

                                                          Emission Reduction Target 

                                                          • N/A

                                                          Renewable Portfolio Standard Target

                                                          • N/A

                                                          Further Reading 

                                                          • N/A

                                                          Key Figures

                                                          • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Mississippi? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                                          Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                          71.9

                                                          Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                          🅲 Commercial: 2.38%
                                                          🅴 Electric: 35.84%
                                                          🆁 Residential: 2.41%
                                                          🅸 Industrial: 17.82%
                                                          🆃 Transportation: 41.55%
                                                          🅾 Other: 0%

                                                          Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                          States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                          43

                                                          Climate Goals

                                                          No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                          Carbon Pricing Status

                                                          Not yet considered

                                                          Missouri

                                                          With a Republican state government trifecta, Missouri has not made progress on climate action.

                                                          Due to high biomass energy production and large increases in wind and solar generation over the past few years, renewable sources provide over 40% of Missouri’s energy generation.  However, carbon pricing has not been introduced and Governor Mike Parson’s administration has not prioritized or supported policies to reduce emissions.

                                                          More on Missouri

                                                          2021 Legislation

                                                          • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 6th, 2021 and adjourned on May 28, 2021.
                                                          • SB 141
                                                            • Proposes establishing that no political subdivision can prohibit the connection of a utility service based on the type or source of energy to be delivered to a customer. 
                                                            • Proposes requiring the Public Service Commission to adopt rules for gas corporations to offer a voluntary “renewable natural gas” program.
                                                            • Proposes creating the Missouri Nuclear Clean Power Act to enable the construction of “clean” nuclear power plants.
                                                            • Status: In Conference on 5/13/21
                                                          • HB 734 and SB 202
                                                            • Creates the Missouri Electricity Bill Reduction and Assistance Act, which enables utilities to refinance their debt through securitization
                                                              • This allows for faster retirement of coal burning power plants.
                                                            • Status: HB 734 – Truly Agreed To and Finally Passed on 5/13/21; HB 202 – Senate Bills with House Amendments on 5/13/21

                                                          Political Context

                                                          • There is a Republican state government trifecta in Missouri. 
                                                          • Republicans have veto-proof supermajorities in both the House (114-49) and the Senate (24-10).
                                                          • Republican Gov. Mike Parson has not prioritized climate or environmental issues in his administration.

                                                            Past Legislation 

                                                            • N/A

                                                            Emission Reduction Target 

                                                            • N/A

                                                            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                            • By 2021: 15%  from renewable sources (for investor-owned utilities)

                                                            Further Reading 

                                                            • N/A

                                                            Key Figures

                                                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                            89.2

                                                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                            🅲 Commercial: 5.59%
                                                            🅴 Electric: 30.58%
                                                            🆁 Residential: 8.28%
                                                            🅸 Industrial: 11.11%
                                                            🆃 Transportation: 44.44%
                                                            🅾 Other: 0%

                                                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                            24

                                                            Climate Goals

                                                            No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                            Carbon Pricing Status

                                                            Not yet considered

                                                            Montana

                                                            Despite being a conservative-leaning state, Montana has made some progress on climate with former Governor Steve Bullock (D). Through his tenure, Bullock has entered Montana into the US Climate Alliance and created the Montana Climate Solutions Council. This Council released a Montana Climate Solutions Plan in August 2020. 

                                                            In the November 2020 election, Republican Greg Gianforte was elected as governor, creating a Republican state government trifecta in Montana. Gov. Gianforte ran on promises to streamline permitting processes, and he has been a strong supporter of Montana coal production. This shift may hinder Montana’s climate action moving forward.

                                                            More on Montana

                                                            2021 Legislation

                                                            • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 4th, 2021 and adjourned on May 1st, 2021.

                                                            Political Context

                                                            • With the election of Gov. Gianforte, Montana has a Republican state government trifecta.
                                                            • Republicans hold firm majorities in both the House (67-33) and Senate (31-18).
                                                            • Following the end of Democratic Governor Steve Bullock’s term in 2020, Republican Greg Gianforte won the governorship. Gianforte has been silent on climate policy other than to promote Montana’s coal production and promising to “streamline” permitting processes to increase logging, coal mining, and oil and gas production in his election platform. 
                                                            • Former Governor Bullock (D) created and named members to the new Montana Climate Solutions Council. This Council released the Montana Climate Solutions Plan in August 2020. It is unclear how Gov. Gianforte will proceed with these recommendations.

                                                              Past Legislation 

                                                              • N/A

                                                              Emissions Reduction Targets

                                                              • By 2050: net GHG neutrality by 2050 (voluntary goal)

                                                              Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                              • By 2015: 15% from renewable sources (exceeded: as of 2019, the state boasts 45% renewables)

                                                              Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                                                              • N/A

                                                              Further Reading

                                                              Key Figures

                                                              Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                              32.1

                                                              Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                              🅲 Commercial: 5.37%
                                                              🅴 Electric: 46.38%
                                                              🆁 Residential: 5.53%
                                                              🅸 Industrial: 16.68%
                                                              🆃 Transportation: 26.04%
                                                              🅾 Other: 0%

                                                              Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                              States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                              45

                                                              Climate Goals

                                                              Montana established its legally enforceable mandate to reduce emissions

                                                              By 2050:

                                                              80%

                                                              below 1990 levels

                                                              Carbon Pricing Status

                                                              Under consideration on the legislative level

                                                              Nebraska

                                                              With a Republican government trifecta, Nebraska has not made much progress with progressive state-level climate policy. Even though Nebraska’s electricity sector has some of the oldest and most inefficient generation plants in the country and powers 75% of the state with non-renewable energy, it is actually the initiatives and policies being presently pursued by these same electric utilities that are the avenues with the most potential to effectively lower Nebraska’s emissions. 

                                                              The work of one advocacy group, Nebraska Conservation Voters (NECV), which was led by Senator Eliot Bostar before he was elected to the State Legislature in 2021, has single-handedly changed the trajectory of the state’s utilities energy activities. In absence of a state energy plan or decarbonization goals, the Omaha Public Power District set a net zero carbon emissions goal for 2050 back in 2019, and in 2020, Lincoln Electric System  set their 100% decarbonization goal for 2040. The advocacy work of NECV has correlated with how wind power has contributed nearly 3 times as much to Nebraska’s state net generation as it had just five years ago

                                                              More on Nebraska

                                                              2021 Legislation

                                                              • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 6th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 10th, 2021.
                                                              • LR 5 – Resolution to accept the findings and recommendations of the Healthy Soils Task Force 
                                                                • Directs the Legislature to accept the report, findings, and recommendations of the Healthy Soils Task Force; to consequently support voluntary grassroots effort to protect Nebraska’s soil; urges Dept. of Agriculture and Dept. of Natural Resources to assist.
                                                                • Status: Adopted on 5/21/21
                                                              • LB 650 – Adopt the Nebraska Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide Act 
                                                                • Promotes the geologic storage of carbon dioxide by allowing the Nebraska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to regulate facilities that inject carbon dioxide through wells into underground geologic formations for storage.
                                                                  • The Commission must only issue a permit for geologic storage after a public hearing and consultation with the state Department of Environment and Energy and the federal permitting authority.
                                                                  • The Commission must find that the proposed storage facility will not endanger surface or underground water sources and will have in place a testing and monitoring plan for the location and migration of injected carbon dioxide.
                                                                • Status: Presented to Governor on 5/19/21
                                                              • LB 266 – Renewable Energy Standards Act
                                                                • Proposes adopting the Renewable Energy Standards Act, providing an operative date with public power suppliers mandated to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.
                                                                • States the scientific consensus that human activities are primarily responsible for exacerbating global climate change.
                                                                • Status: Natural Resources Committee hearing on 2/11/21
                                                              • LB 483Act for a Climate Change Study and Action Plan 
                                                                • Proposes providing $250,000 in funding for the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to conduct a climate change study and to create a state action plan.
                                                                • Status: Natural Resources Committee hearing on 2/11/21
                                                              • LB 424 – Provide and change zoning requirements for wind energy generation projects 
                                                                • Proposes requiring county zoning provisions prior to construction of wind energy generation projects, to eliminate provisions relating to variances or exceptions from zoning regulations.
                                                                • Status: Notice of hearing for Feb 26, 2021 on 2/16/21
                                                              • LB 576 – Appropriate funds to the University of Nebraska
                                                                • Proposes allocating $50,000 to University of Nebraska to update the Assessing Climate Change report from 2014.
                                                                • Status: Appropriations Hearing on 2/16/21

                                                              Political Context

                                                                • Nebraska has a Republican state government trifecta.
                                                                • Nebraska has a unicameral legislative body, made up of 49 Senators.  Currently, Republicans hold an overwhelming majority in this legislature  (32-17).
                                                                • Republican Governor Pete Ricketts has been in office since 2015, winning re-election in November 2018. Ricketts is a self-proclaimed skeptic on climate change even when floods in Nebraska caused more than $1 billion in damage. He has been outspoken with support for the construction of the Keystone XL Pipeline, believing it will “create jobs here in Nebraska, lots of tax revenues here in Nebraska, and of course help us become less dependent on foreign oil.” He has also spearheaded several legal fights to end EPA regulations on the agriculture industry. 
                                                                • Gov. Ricketts was the Chairman of the Governors’ Biofuels Coalition in President Trump’s administration and believes that biofuels play an important role in Nebraska agriculture and in the country’s energy security. With the Coalition, he was able to preserve biofuel as a sustainable energy resource and as a Nebraska export.

                                                                Past Legislation

                                                                • N/A

                                                                  Further Reading 

                                                                  Key Figures

                                                                  • Senator Eliot Bostar
                                                                  • Senator John Cavanaugh
                                                                  • Senator Tom Briese
                                                                  • Senator John McCollister
                                                                  • Senator Mike Flood
                                                                  • Senator Tony Vargas
                                                                  • Senator Adam Morfeld
                                                                  • Senator Anna Wishart
                                                                  • Senator Patty Pansing Brooks
                                                                  • Nebraska Conservation Voters
                                                                  • Center for Rural Affairs
                                                                  • Green Omaha Coalition
                                                                  • Divest NU
                                                                  • Sustain UNL
                                                                  • Sustain UNO
                                                                  • Sierra Club Nebraska
                                                                  • Climate Change Nebraska
                                                                  • Sunrisement Movement Omaha
                                                                  • Verdis Group
                                                                  • Nebraska Interfaith Power and Light
                                                                  • Nebraska Clean Energy Business Council
                                                                  • Citizens Climate Lobby Nebraska

                                                                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                  53.8

                                                                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                  🅲 Commercial: 4.38%
                                                                  🅴 Electric: 44.17%
                                                                  🆁 Residential: 5.33%
                                                                  🅸 Industrial: 18.15%
                                                                  🆃 Transportation: 27.98%
                                                                  🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                  37

                                                                  Climate Goals

                                                                  No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                  Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                  Not yet considered

                                                                  Nevada

                                                                  Nevada has made significant progress on climate action. It was one of the first states to enact a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 1997. After new RPS legislation was vetoed by former Gov. Sandoval (R) in 2017, Nevada passed SB358 in April 2019, which raises the state’s RPS to 50% clean energy by 2030 — one of the highest in the country — and sets a goal for 100% carbon-free energy by 2050. Democratic Gov. Sisolak also signed SB 254 in June 2019, which established greenhouse gas reduction targets of 28% below 2005 levels by 2025 and 45% below by 2030. 

                                                                  On November 22, 2019, Gov. Sisolak issued an executive order that calls for state agencies to determine policies and regulations to successfully meet the state’s emissions reduction targets; The State Climate Strategy was released to the Governor on December 1, 2020 by the Climate Initiative.

                                                                  More on Nevada

                                                                  2021 Legislation

                                                                  • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on February 1st, 2021 and adjourned on June 1st, 2021.
                                                                  • AB 413
                                                                    • Requires the Department of Transportation to establish an Advisory Working Group to study transportation issues during the 2021-2022 interim.
                                                                    • Status: Approved by the Governor on 5/21/21
                                                                  • AB 349
                                                                    • Proposes closing the “classic car loophole”, which allows any vehicle over 20 years old to qualify for a special antique motor vehicle license plate and avoid a smog test, by limiting those license plates to vehicles which are not used for general transportation (defined as less than 5,000 miles per year) and have an insurance policy designed for an antique car.
                                                                    • Exempts new motor vehicles from undergoing a smog test until their fourth year of life (current law requires it after the second year)
                                                                    • Status: Received Do Pass from Committee on Ways and Means on 5/10/21
                                                                  • AB 380
                                                                    • Proposed requiring gas utilities to plan for future spending on the gas system and demonstrate the economic, environmental, and other benefits to the state and utility customers.
                                                                    • Proposed requiring the Public Utilities Commission of Nevada (PUCN) to investigate the role of gas utilities in reaching the state’s climate goals and report findings to the Legislature by 2023.
                                                                    • Status: Failed in committee on 4/10/21
                                                                  • SB 382
                                                                    • Proposed establishing requirements and incentives for utilities to create energy efficiency programs in Nevada
                                                                    • Status: Failed in committee on 4/10/21

                                                                  Political Context

                                                                  • Nevada has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                                                                  • Democrats hold a majority in the House (26-16) and Senate (12-9). 
                                                                  • Democratic Gov. Steve Sisolak joined the U.S. Climate Alliance, committing the state to meeting Paris Agreement targets. In 2019, he signed legislation to drastically increase the state’s renewable energy requirements and establish emissions reduction targets.
                                                                  • In November 2020, voters amended the State’s Constitution to require electric utilities to acquire 50 percent of their electricity from renewable resources by 2030 through the passage of Question 6.

                                                                    Past Legislation 

                                                                    • SB 254– An act relating to greenhouse gas emissions (2019)
                                                                      • Sets forth economy-wide GHG reduction goals of 28% below 2005 levels by 2025, 45% below 2005 levels by 2030, zero or near-zero by 2050.
                                                                      • Requires the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to produce a statewide inventory and projection of GHG emissions released in Nevada, including a “statement of policies” for consideration in addressing GHG emissions in Nevada
                                                                    • SB 358– An act relating to renewable energy (2019)
                                                                      • Established more stringent targets for Nevada’s RPS 
                                                                      • Made Nevada the fourth state in the U.S. to establish a 100% clean energy target. 
                                                                    • SB 300– An act relating to electric utilities (2019)
                                                                      • Allows utilities to adopt alternative rate-making structures such as performance-based ratemaking. 
                                                                    • SB 145– An act relating to energy (2017)
                                                                      • Incentivizes installation of energy storage and renewable energy systems 
                                                                      • Establishes the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Demonstration Program

                                                                    Emission Reduction Targets 

                                                                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                      • By 2021: 24% from renewable sources
                                                                      • By 2030: 50% from renewable sources
                                                                      • By 2050: 100% from renewable sources

                                                                      Further Reading 

                                                                      Key Figures

                                                                        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                        53.5

                                                                        Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                        🅲 Commercial: 4.67%
                                                                        🅴 Electric: 24.53%
                                                                        🆁 Residential: 4.86%
                                                                        🅸 Industrial: 26.12%
                                                                        🆃 Transportation: 32.74%
                                                                        🅾 Other: 7.08%

                                                                        Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                        States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                        18

                                                                        Climate Goals

                                                                        Nevada established its legally enforceable mandate in 2019 to reduce emissions

                                                                        By 2025:

                                                                        28%

                                                                        below 2005 levels

                                                                        By 2030:

                                                                        45%

                                                                        below 2005 levels

                                                                        By 2050:

                                                                        Zero or Near-Zero

                                                                        Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                        Not yet considered

                                                                        New Hampshire

                                                                        New Hampshire has historically lagged in climate action progress compared to other Northeastern states. Governor Chris Sununu (R) is skeptical of the existence of climate change and has vetoed several efforts to increase climate ambition. He is the only governor in the Northeast who hasn’t joined the US Climate Alliance and withdrew from the Transportation and Climate Initiative development process in 2019, although the state remains part of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI).

                                                                        In 2020, lawmakers formed an ad-hoc, non-partisan commission, the New Hampshire Emission Commission, tasked with developing a report that identifies a science-based emissions reduction goal for the state of New Hampshire to achieve by 2050. Its final report was released in December 2020 and recommended that lawmakers reintroduce SB 590, which would allow for a thorough and data-focused legislative consideration of emission goals centered around climate science and public health. That bill was reintroduced in 2021 as SB 71 and was recommended Ought to Pass in committee.

                                                                        Legislation passed in 2019 allows Community Choice Aggregation in New Hampshire and in February 2021, Lebanon and Hanover became the first two municipalities to start community power programs.

                                                                        More on New Hampshire

                                                                        2021 Legislation

                                                                        • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 6th and is scheduled to adjourn on June 30th.
                                                                        • SB 115 and HB 172 – Climate Action Plan
                                                                          • Establishes greenhouse gas reductions goals and establishes climate action plan
                                                                          • Status: SB 115 – Killed in committee on 3/11/21; HB 172 – Retained until 2022
                                                                        • HB 315 – Community Power Law Amendment
                                                                          • Originally written by utility company lobbyists to limit effectiveness of Community Choice Aggregation programs
                                                                          • Rewritten by community power advocates to CCA interests and now has bipartisan support
                                                                          • Status: Ought to Pass with Amendments in Senate on 5/13/21
                                                                        • SB 71 – Emissions Reduction Study Bill 
                                                                          • Proposes establishing a commission to develop science-based greenhouse gas emissions reductions goals for the state of New Hampshire
                                                                          • Status: Ought to Pass with Amendment in Senate on 3/3/21

                                                                        Political Context

                                                                        • New Hampshire has a Republican state government trifecta.
                                                                        • Governor Chris Sununu (R), who has questioned if carbon is the leading cause for global warming and supported Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, hinders progressive climate action in the state.
                                                                        • Republicans flipped both chambers of the legislature in the 2020 election, holding majorities in the Senate (14-10) and House (213-187).
                                                                        • New Hampshire’s official state motto is “Live free or die”, and this has translated into a long history into a small-government approach. The state has no sales or income tax, motorcyclists may ride without a helmet, auto insurance is optional; these political norms play a role in preventing progressive climate action.

                                                                        Emission Reduction Targets

                                                                        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                        • By 2025: 25.2%  from renewable sources

                                                                          Past Legislation

                                                                          • N/A

                                                                          Further Reading

                                                                          Key Figures 

                                                                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                            16.1

                                                                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                            🅲 Commercial: 9.25%
                                                                            🅴 Electric: 12.92%
                                                                            🆁 Residential: 19.38%
                                                                            🅸 Industrial: 9.32%
                                                                            🆃 Transportation: 45.34%
                                                                            🅾 Other: 3.79%

                                                                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                            8

                                                                            Climate Goals

                                                                            New Hampshire updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2009 to reduce emissions

                                                                            By 2025:

                                                                            20%

                                                                            below 1990 levels

                                                                            By 2050:

                                                                            80%

                                                                            below 1990 levels

                                                                            Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                            Enacted on the regional level:

                                                                            Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                                                            Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                                                                            New Jersey

                                                                            New Jersey has made significant progress on climate in the past few years. Nearly eight years since Republican Gov. Chris Christie pulled New Jersey out of RGGI, the state rejoined the cap-and-trade initiative in 2020. Democratic Gov. Phil Murphy announced the return in January 2018, and in June 2019 the Department of Environmental Quality approved two rules that enabled the state’s participation in RGGI starting in the first auction of 2020. New Jersey’s involvement with the Transportation Climate Initiative, a regional system to cap emissions, is still being evaluated by the state, with equity concerns appearing at the forefront of stakeholder discussions. In January 2020, New Jersey released an Energy Master Plan that aims to get the state on a path to 100% clean energy by 2050.

                                                                            In September 2020, New Jersey passed one of the nation’s most comprehensive environmental justice (EJ) specific bills, Senate Bill 232. The legislation places restrictions on polluting facilities in “overburdened communities”, while demanding they seek an impact assessment from the NJ Department of Environmental Protection. In addition, Governor Murphy announced a plan in February 2021 to direct $100 million of investment of proceeds from New Jersey’s participation in RGGI, as well as the prosecution of Volkswagen for emissions cheating, to fund projects that improve air quality in overburdened communities and reduce emissions that affect air quality.

                                                                            More on New Jersey

                                                                            2021 Legislation 

                                                                            • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 4th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on January 11th, 2022.

                                                                            Political Context

                                                                            • New Jersey has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                                                                            • Democratic Gov. Murphy is undoubtedly more supportive of strong climate policy than his predecessor, Republican Gov. Christie. 
                                                                            • Gov. Murphy has set ambitious clean energy goals for the state, requiring that more than 1.5 million New Jersey homes must be powered by offshore windmills by 2030, and 100% of New Jersey must be powered by clean energy by 2050
                                                                            • Through the passage of Executive Order No. 23, Murphy directed the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to develop guidance on how all state departments can incorporate environmental justice considerations into their actions.
                                                                            • Murphy’s first year in office was praised by most environmental groups, although some worry he has focused too much on electricity and not enough on other emission-intensive sectors, like transportation. 
                                                                            • Democrats hold firm majorities in both the Senate (25-15) and House (52-28).
                                                                            • New Jersey joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in 2018.

                                                                            Emission Reduction Targets 

                                                                            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                            Past Legislation 

                                                                            • SB 232 (2020)
                                                                              • Places restrictions on corporations aiming to build or modify polluting facilities, such as power plants, waste sites, or manufacturing establishments, in “overburdened communities.”
                                                                              • Requires all polluting facilities that hope to develop a new project, expand an existing project, or renew state permits to undergo a new review through the Department of Environmental Protection
                                                                              • Establishes the definition of “overburdened communities” as neighborhoods that have 35% low-income residents, 40% non-White, or 40% with limited English-speaking capabilities
                                                                            • A 3723 – An Act concerning clean energy (2018)
                                                                              • Establishes a renewable portfolio standard of 21% by 2020; 35% by 2025 and 50% by 2030.
                                                                              • Reforms the state’s solar program by making near-term structural changes to ensure that the program is sustainable over the long term.
                                                                              • Codifies the Governor’s goal of 3,500 MW of offshore wind by 2030 and reinstates an expired program to provide tax credits for offshore wind manufacturing activities.
                                                                              • Establishes a community solar energy program to allow all New Jersey residents to benefit from solar energy.
                                                                              • Requires each utility to implement energy efficiency measures to reduce electricity usage by 2% and natural gas usage by 0.75%.
                                                                              • Codifies the Governor’s goal of achieving 600 MW of energy storage by 2021 and 2,000 MW by 2030.

                                                                            Further Reading

                                                                            Key Figures

                                                                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                            105.1

                                                                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                            🅲 Commercial: 7.32%
                                                                            🅴 Electric: 17.22%
                                                                            🆁 Residential: 14.46%
                                                                            🅸 Industrial: 8.47%
                                                                            🆃 Transportation: 38.63%
                                                                            🅾 Other: 13.89%

                                                                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                            11

                                                                            Climate Goals

                                                                            New Jersey established its legally enforceable mandates in 2007 to reduce emissions

                                                                            By 2020:

                                                                            Return to 1990 levels

                                                                            By 2050:

                                                                            80%

                                                                            below 2006 levels

                                                                            Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                            Enacted on the regional level:

                                                                            Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                                                            Under consideration on the regional level:

                                                                            Transportation and Climate Initiative

                                                                            Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                                                                            New Mexico

                                                                            New Mexico has made significant progress on climate action in recent years. On January 29, 2019, Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) signed an executive order committing New Mexico to critical climate action. As a result, the state joined the U.S. Climate Alliance and formed an Interagency Climate Change Task Force required to create an extensive climate strategy. This strategy must include a “comprehensive market-based program that sets emission limits across New Mexico,” among various other measures.  On November 21st, 2019, the Task Force released a report outlining emissions reduction policies, including implementing a cap-and-trade program. The most recent progress report was released in October 2020.

                                                                            Despite the progress, climate policy in New Mexico is complex and contentious for a variety of factors. As an extractive state, there is a large number of supporters of the fossil fuel industry who work to dissent comprehensive climate policy. New Mexico is the nation’s third-largest oil-producing state and is among the top 10 natural gas-producing states. The oil and gas industry accounted for about ⅓ of New Mexico’s funding in 2020, largely tied to education and other social programs. While Gov. Grisham’s 2019 emissions reduction targets made it clear that NM is committed to enacting climate policy, NM has a lot more work to do to be on track to meet emissions targets.

                                                                            More on New Mexico

                                                                            2021 Legislation 

                                                                            • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 19th, 2021 and adjourned on March 20th, 2021.
                                                                            • SB 112: Sustainable Economy Task Force
                                                                              • Creates the Sustainable Economy Task Force from multiple cabinet departments and state agencies to create and implement a strategic plan for a Just Transition to a sustainable economy.
                                                                              • Status: Signed by Governor on 4/5/21.
                                                                            • SB 8
                                                                              • Allows the state and Albuquerque/Bernalillo County to adopt environmental regulations for air pollutants and hazardous waste more stringent than those at the federal level.
                                                                              • Allows the state to develop rules related to the remediation of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), which the federal government does not currently regulate.
                                                                              • Prior to this bill, the state’s air quality and hazardous waste laws included provisions that prevent the state from adopting more stringent rules than those of the federal government. 
                                                                              • Status: Signed by Governor on 4/8/21
                                                                            • HB 15
                                                                              • Creates the Sustainable Building Tax Credit to encourage the construction of sustainable buildings and the renovation of existing buildings into sustainable buildings.
                                                                              • Status: Signed by Governor on 4/6/21
                                                                            • SB 84: Community Solar
                                                                              • Establishes a statewide community solar program, allowing electricity customers to opt into a solar power from a shared facility larger than residential solar panels but smaller than a utility-scale solar farm.
                                                                                • Requires 30% of each community solar facility to serve low-income users.
                                                                              • Status: Signed by Governor on 4/5/21
                                                                            • Not passed:
                                                                              • SB 149: Prohibit New Fracking Licenses
                                                                                • Suspended in Senate Judiciary Committee
                                                                              • HB 9: Climate Solutions Act – focused on economic diversification and enshrining emission reduction targets
                                                                                • Stopped in House State Government, Elections & Indian Affairs Committee
                                                                              • HB 173: Community Solar on Homes
                                                                                • Stopped in the Senate Rules Committee

                                                                            Political Context

                                                                            • New Mexico has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                                                                            • Democratic Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham campaigned on the promise of strong climate action, and signed a decisive executive order in her first month in office. 
                                                                            • Democrats hold sizable majorities in both the Senate (27-15) and House (45-24-1). 
                                                                            • In the 2020 Election, Amendment 1 passed restructuring the state’s public utility commission to shrink from five to three members, all appointed by the governor. A rigorous appointment process ensures that members of the public utility commission are qualified and not tied to election funding.

                                                                            Emission Reduction Targets

                                                                            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                            • By 2030: 50% from renewable sources
                                                                            • By 2040: 80% from renewable sources
                                                                            • By 2045: 100% from zero-carbon resources for investor-owned utilities
                                                                            • By 2050: 100% from zero-carbon resources for cooperative utilities

                                                                            Past Legislation

                                                                            • SM 23 (2018) – “A Study of Carbon Fee and Dividend Legislation” 
                                                                              • Mandates a legislative committee to study how a revenue-neutral carbon fee could be implemented in the state, and what impacts it would have on health, the economy, and greenhouse gas emissions. 
                                                                            • Senate Bill 489 (2019) – An Energy Transition Act
                                                                              • Increases New Mexico’s commitment to clean energy from 20% by 2020 to 100% by 2050, with intermittent goals. 
                                                                              • On January 29, 2020, the New Mexico Supreme Court ruled that ETA applies to plans for closing and recovering investments from the San Juan Generating Station;  the the Public Regulation Commission had been at odds with the Governor, legislators, and environmental community about whether the ETA applied to these plans since they preceded the bill.  
                                                                              • This will cost $27 million per year and includes a $20 million fund to help people whose jobs are impacted, aiding in a just transition. However, it has been criticized for a timeline that isn’t aggressive enough, as certain parts of the electricity sector have until 2050 to transition.

                                                                            Further Reading

                                                                            Key Figures

                                                                            • Senator William Soules 
                                                                            • Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham
                                                                              • Signed executive order setting 45% emissions reduction target and has committed to taking aggressive climate action in the state
                                                                              • However, recently sent a letter to President Biden arguing that the federal government’s actions seeking to halt oil extraction on public lands would cause tremendous losses to New Mexico, as oil and gas revenues fund many initiatives in the state, despite economic diversification goals. She asked Biden to grant the state energy transition credit for actions the state has taken to address pollution and the passing of its landmark Energy Transition Act. This stance has garnered GOP praise. 
                                                                              • Sometimes garners criticism for focusing on air quality as opposed to oil and gas production.
                                                                            • Speaker of the House Brian Egolf
                                                                              • Introduced climate solutions act and Civil Rights Act
                                                                              • Wants to make New Mexico a climate leader not just in the US but also on a global scale. 
                                                                              • Focuses on economic diversification and resiliency. 
                                                                            • Angelica Rubio, state rep for District 35, Las Cruces. 
                                                                              • Serves on House Energy, Environment & Natural Resources Committee, as well as Labor & Economic Development, Courts, Corrections, & Justice, and Radioactive & Hazardous Materials.
                                                                              • Focuses on environmental justice through an economic and racial lens

                                                                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                            66.0

                                                                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                            🅲 Commercial: 2.64%
                                                                            🅴 Electric: 18.18%
                                                                            🆁 Residential: 3.42%
                                                                            🅸 Industrial: 42.43%
                                                                            🆃 Transportation: 22.22%
                                                                            🅾 Other: 11.11%

                                                                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                            36

                                                                            Climate Goals

                                                                            New Mexico established its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

                                                                            By 2030:

                                                                            45%

                                                                            below 2005 levels

                                                                            Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                            Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                                                                            New York

                                                                            New York has been a historical leader on climate action in both the Northeast and across the country. The state is a committed member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), and although it declined to formally join the Transportation and Climate Initiative (TCI), it has indicated that it will continue to collaborate with the wider TCI to move toward equitable climate solutions. 

                                                                            In July 2019, the Governor signed the Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act (CLCPA), which calls for the entire state’s economy to achieve an 85% reduction in emissions from 1990 levels by 2050, with offsets for the remaining 15% to achieve net zero emissions. Legislators and advocates, led by the broad New York Renews coalition, are pushing for another statewide climate initiative—the Climate and Community Investment Act (CCIA)—which imposes a fee on carbon pollution.

                                                                            More on New York

                                                                            2021 Legislation

                                                                            • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 6th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 10th, 2021.
                                                                            • SB 528 and AB 1368
                                                                              • Amends the NY State Constitution’s bill of rights to include a right to clean air and water and a healthful environment.
                                                                              • Status: Passed both Senate and House in two consecutive legislative sessions; will appear on the Nov. 2021 ballot
                                                                            • S4264AThe Climate and Community Investment Act 
                                                                              • Proposes a goal to reduce 100% of emissions by 2050 in the state, partly through putting a price on carbon
                                                                              • Fee system: The bill establishes The New York State Climate Action Council, which will determine the plan to reach the reduction target. This council will choose the type of carbon price that will go into effect in the state 
                                                                              • Revenue breakdown: The fee is projected to generate about $7 billion in revenue every year for the first ten years.
                                                                                • 30% of revenue is dedicated to Climate Jobs and Infrastructure 
                                                                                • 33% will go to the Climate Just Transition Fund, which targets investments for disadvantaged communities  
                                                                                • 30% will go to the New York Energy Rebate Fund
                                                                                • 7% is dedicated to the Worker and Community Assurance Fund 
                                                                                • Status: Recommitted to the Committee on Environmental Conservation on 3/22/21 

                                                                            Political Context

                                                                            • New York has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                                                                            • Governor Andrew Cuomo (D) has been a proponent of strong climate action. He’s called for the passage of a ‘Green New Deal’ that mandates the electric sector be 100% carbon-free by 2040 and establishes a council that evaluates policies to eliminate emissions across the state. Gov. Cuomo has also set a bold emission reduction target: 80% below 1990 levels by 2050
                                                                            • Democrats hold veto-proof supermajorities in the Senate (42-21) and Assembly (106-43-1).
                                                                            • New York co-founded the U.S. Climate Alliance in 2017.

                                                                            Emission Reduction Targets

                                                                            • By 2030: 40% below 1990 levels
                                                                            • By 2050: 85% below 1990 levels (with offsets accounting for the remaining 15%)

                                                                            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                            • By 2030: 70% from renewable sources
                                                                            • By 2040: 100% zero-emissions electricity

                                                                              Past Legislation

                                                                              • SB S6599: Climate Leadership and Communities Protection Act (CLCPA) (2019)
                                                                                • Requires a reduction of GHG emissions 85% below 1990 levels by 2050 and an offset of the remaining 15%. 
                                                                                • States that 35% of the benefits of clean energy and energy efficiency funding must go to “disadvantaged” communities
                                                                                • Requires 70% of electricity to come from renewable sources by 2030.
                                                                                • Requires solar capacity to increase 250% by 2025 and requires enough offshore wind to power 6 million homes by 2035.
                                                                                • Creates a Just Transition Working Group to ensure that green jobs are good jobs, jobs are available to underrepresented groups, and workforce disruption is minimized.
                                                                                • Creates a Climate Justice Working Group charged with identifying “disadvantaged communities” for funding opportunities through the bill.

                                                                                Further Reading

                                                                                Key Figures

                                                                                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                179.1

                                                                                Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                🅲 Commercial: 11.74%
                                                                                🅴 Electric: 12.98%
                                                                                🆁 Residential: 17.80%
                                                                                🅸 Industrial: 8.26%
                                                                                🆃 Transportation: 44.94%
                                                                                🅾 Other: 4.29%

                                                                                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                1

                                                                                Climate Goals

                                                                                New York updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

                                                                                By 2030:

                                                                                40%

                                                                                below 1990 levels

                                                                                By 2050:

                                                                                85%

                                                                                below 1990 levels
                                                                                (with offsets accounting for remaining 15% to net zero)

                                                                                Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                Enacted on the regional level:

                                                                                Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                                                                Under consideration on the regional level:

                                                                                Transportation and Climate Initiative

                                                                                Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                                                                                North Carolina

                                                                                North Carolina has not been a historic leader on climate, but the election of Democratic Governor Roy Cooper in 2017 has increased the state’s climate ambition. In 2018, Governor Cooper issued Executive Order 80, which established the Climate Interagency Council charged with developing mitigation and adaptation programs. The order also implemented North Carolina’s current greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets and required the North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality to release a Clean Energy Plan, which it did in October 2019.

                                                                                Democrats hoped to flip the state legislature in the 2020 election but did not succeed, which creates obstacles for passing climate legislation in the near future.

                                                                                More on North Carolina

                                                                                2021 Legislation 

                                                                                • The 2021 Legislative session convened on January 13th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on July 2, 2021.
                                                                                • HB 784: Environmental Justice Considerations
                                                                                  • Proposes requiring consideration of the cumulative impact of a proposed environmental permitting decision on minority or low-income communities and providing enhanced public participation opportunities for permitting decisions impacting overburdened communities. 
                                                                                  • Status: Referred to Committee on Rules, Calendar, and Operations of the House on 5/4/21.

                                                                                Political Context

                                                                                • Republicans currently hold the majority in both the House (61-51) and Senate (28-22).
                                                                                • Gov. Roy Cooper (D) is supportive of environmental goals, and issued Executive Order 80, which established the Climate Change Interagency Council and implemented the state’s greenhouse gas emissions-reduction target of 40% below 2005 levels by 2025. 
                                                                                • North Carolina joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in 2017.

                                                                                Emission Reduction Targets

                                                                                • By 2025: 40% below 2005 levels 
                                                                                • By 2030: 70% below 2005 levels (for the electric power sector) 
                                                                                • By 2050: carbon neutrality

                                                                                Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                • By 2021: 12.5% from renewable sources

                                                                                Past Legislation 

                                                                                • HB 589: Competitive Energy Solutions for North Carolina (2017)
                                                                                  • Reduces the contract lengths under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) to a maximum of 10 years and reduces the qualifying facility size to 1,000 kWs (1 MW) at first. Then, after reaching a threshold of 100 MWs of qualifying renewable energy under contract per public utility, the terms would be reduced to fixed five-year terms for qualifying facilities of 100 kWs.
                                                                                  • Requires Duke Energy and Duke Energy Progress to take bids for an aggregate 2,660 MWs of specifically new renewable energy over a 45-month period, plus an additional 3,500 MWs of renewable energy and any remnant not under contract.

                                                                                  Further Reading

                                                                                  Key Figures

                                                                                  • Gov. Roy Cooper 
                                                                                  • Sen. Wiley Nickel

                                                                                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                  160.9

                                                                                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                  🅲 Commercial: 3.64%
                                                                                  🅴 Electric: 33.38%
                                                                                  🆁 Residential: 3.84%
                                                                                  🅸 Industrial: 9.23%
                                                                                  🆃 Transportation: 32.62%
                                                                                  🅾 Other: 17.30%

                                                                                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                  14

                                                                                  Climate Goals

                                                                                  North Carolina established legally enforceable mandates to reduce emissions

                                                                                  By 2025:

                                                                                  40%

                                                                                  below 2005 levels

                                                                                  By 2030:

                                                                                  70%

                                                                                  below 2005 levels

                                                                                  By 2050:

                                                                                  Carbon Neutrality

                                                                                  Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                  Under consideration on the executive level

                                                                                  North Dakota

                                                                                  North Dakota has not made meaningful progress on climate action. It is among the top 10 coal and crude oil-producing states in the country, and Governor Doug Burgum (R) supports expanding the state’s energy production. In April 2020, the US Department of Energy awarded $17 million to help fund an engineering study for Project Tundra, an initiative to build the world’s largest carbon capture and storage facility. Burgum said that this project “gives North Dakota the opportunity to reduce emissions and boost energy production.” 

                                                                                  In May 2021, Burgum announced a goal to make North Dakota carbon neutral by 2030, envisioning innovation in energy and agriculture industries while still maintaining robust oil and coal industries. The state does have a voluntary RPS goal of producing 10% of all electricity from renewable sources by 2015, enacted by HB 1506 in 2007; they have far exceeded this goal, with 39% of electricity coming from renewable sources in 2020.

                                                                                  More on North Dakota

                                                                                  2021 Legislation

                                                                                  • The 2021 Legislative Session convened on January 5th, 2021 and adjourned on April 28th, 2021.
                                                                                  • HB 1452: Clean Sustainable Energy Fund
                                                                                    • Creates a Clean Sustainable Energy Authority, which will develop a Clean Sustainable Energy Program to enhance the state’s existing energy technology while bringing in new energy sources and technology.
                                                                                    • Provides $25 million from the state’s general fund to the Authority to fund qualified projects which reduce environmental impacts and use energy sources derived from within the state.
                                                                                    • Status: Signed by Governor on 4/28/21

                                                                                  Political Context

                                                                                  • North Dakota has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                                                                                  • Republicans have a veto-proof supermajority in both the House (80-14) and the Senate (40-7). . 
                                                                                  • Republican Gov. Doug Burgum has not prioritized environmental issues, stating that “innovation—not regulation—solves oil & gas challenges.”

                                                                                    Past Legislation 

                                                                                    • N/A

                                                                                    Emission Reduction Target 

                                                                                    • N/A

                                                                                    Renewable Portfolio Standard Target

                                                                                    • By 2015: voluntary goal of 10% clean energy (exceeded: currently at 39%)

                                                                                    Further Reading

                                                                                    • N/A

                                                                                    Key Figures

                                                                                    • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in North Dakota? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                                                                    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                    60.3

                                                                                    Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                    🅲 Commercial: 1.98%
                                                                                    🅴 Electric: 50.18%
                                                                                    🆁 Residential: 2.07%
                                                                                    🅸 Industrial: 29.92%
                                                                                    🆃 Transportation: 15.84%
                                                                                    🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                                    Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                    States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                    49

                                                                                    Climate Goals

                                                                                    No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                    Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                    Not yet considered

                                                                                    Ohio

                                                                                    Ohio has not made significant progress on climate action. Although Gov. Mike DeWine (R) said, “it’s important for the state of Ohio to be able to have a significant amount of energy that is created to be carbon free…” he has not prioritized policies to reduce emissions or promote renewable energy generation.

                                                                                    In July 2019, the Ohio legislature passed a bill (HB 6) decreasing its RPS from 12.5% by 2026 to 8.5% by 2026, and completely ends the standard after 2026. Ohio is the first state in the past decade to reduce or repeal its RPS target since Kansas repealed its RPS in 2009. HB 6 also increases monthly utility bills by $0.85 to subsidize coal and nuclear energy generation. 

                                                                                    In July 2020, the FBI revealed that the passage of HB 6 was a direct result of bribery and corruption in the state. FirstEnergy, an Akron-based electric utility with a deep-rooted history of climate denial, had bribed Speaker of the House Larry Householder and dozens of other legislators in the state to champion HB 6. After the FBI investigation, Householder and four others were arrested, and Governor Mike DeWine has since called for the law’s repeal.

                                                                                    Despite the lack of state action, cities in Ohio have made some progress on their climate ambition. In the 2020 election, citizens in Columbus passed Issue 1, authorizing the city to establish Community Choice Aggregation. This shift will allow Columbus to meet its 100% renewable energy by 2022 goal, increase clean energy jobs, and provide competitive pricing with more local control over energy sources.

                                                                                    More on Ohio

                                                                                    2021-2022 Legislation

                                                                                    • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convened on January 4th, 2021 and will adjourn on December 31st, 2022.

                                                                                    Political Context

                                                                                    • Ohio has a Republican state government trifecta.
                                                                                    • Republicans hold a 64-35 majority in the Ohio House of Representatives, and a 24-9 majority in the State Senate.
                                                                                    • Republican Gov. Mike DeWine opposed the Clean Power Plan and has not demonstrated environmental leadership in office.

                                                                                    Constitutional Constraints

                                                                                    • The Ohio state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                                                                                    Past Legislation 

                                                                                    • N/A

                                                                                    Emission Reduction Target 

                                                                                    • N/A

                                                                                    Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                    • By 2026: 8.5%

                                                                                    Further Reading 

                                                                                    Key Figures

                                                                                    • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Ohio? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                                                                    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                    216.3

                                                                                    Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                    🅲 Commercial: 5.78%
                                                                                    🅴 Electric: 35.61%
                                                                                    🆁 Residential: 8.82%
                                                                                    🅸 Industrial: 19.50%
                                                                                    🆃 Transportation: 30.28%
                                                                                    🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                                    Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                    States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                    32

                                                                                    Climate Goals

                                                                                    No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                    Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                    Enacted on the municipal level in:

                                                                                    Athens

                                                                                    Oklahoma

                                                                                    Oklahoma has not made significant progress on climate action. It is the nation’s third-largest producer of wind power, and utilities are seeking to expand wind and solar energy — although coal and natural gas are the state’s primary fuels for electricity generation.

                                                                                    State-level action to reduce emissions is unlikely in the near future, however, local communities are leading the transition to clean energy. Rural electric cooperatives have been expanding wind and solar energy production. In May 2018, Norman became the first and only Oklahoma municipality to commit to 100% clean energy. The city has a goal of 100% clean electricity by 2035 and across all sectors, including heat and transportation, by 2050.

                                                                                    More on Oklahoma

                                                                                    2021-2022 Legislation

                                                                                    • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convened on February 1st, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on May 29th, 2022.

                                                                                    Political Context

                                                                                    • Oklahoma has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                                                                                    • Republicans hold a 82-19 supermajority in the Oklahoma House of Representatives, and a 39-9 supermajority in the State Senate.
                                                                                    • Republican Gov. Kevin Stitt has not prioritized environmental issues in his administration. 

                                                                                    Past Legislation 

                                                                                    • N/A

                                                                                    Emission Reduction Target 

                                                                                    • N/A

                                                                                    Further Reading 

                                                                                    • N/A

                                                                                    Key Figures

                                                                                    • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Oklahoma? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                                                                    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                    100.9

                                                                                    Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                    🅲 Commercial: 3.27%
                                                                                    🅴 Electric: 32.72%
                                                                                    🆁 Residential: 4.23%
                                                                                    🅸 Industrial: 26.49%
                                                                                    🆃 Transportation: 33.29%
                                                                                    🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                                    Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                    States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                    35

                                                                                    Climate Goals

                                                                                    No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                    Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                    Not yet considered

                                                                                    Oregon

                                                                                    Oregon has made significant progress on climate action; however, Republicans have prevented critical bills from passing by fleeing the capital and refusing to vote. The highly-anticipated cap-and-invest Clean Energy Jobs bill (HB 2020) was reintroduced during the 2019 legislative session. The bill looked like it had a lot of momentum after passing the House, but it failed to receive a final vote in the Senate in the wake of the Republican walk-out

                                                                                    In January 2020,, democratic lawmakers unveiled a revised version of this cap-and-invest bill (SB 1530). This new version includes measures to lessen the burden on rural, low-income households. Legislators hoped for this bill to make quick progress, but Republican representatives again fled the capitol and refused to vote. 

                                                                                    In response, Gov. Brown secured emergency funding to create a carbon-cutting plan through Executive Order 20-04, which she announced in March 2020, that includes emissions reductions targets that decrease over time, which the Environmental Quality Commission has the power to enforce through a cap-and-trade program. The legislature allocated $5 million to the Governor to complete this plan, and the cap-and-trade program is expected to begin in 2022.

                                                                                    More on Oregon

                                                                                    2021 Legislation

                                                                                    • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 19th and is scheduled to adjourn on June 30th.

                                                                                    Political Context

                                                                                    • Oregon has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                                                                                    • Democratic Gov. Kate Brown has championed and prioritized climate policy. Through executive action, she was able to achieve strong climate ambition despite being unable to pass legislation in the state legislature. Democrats hold majorities in both the Senate (18-12) and House (38-22). Oregon joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

                                                                                    Constitutional Constraints

                                                                                    • The Oregon state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                                                                                    Emission Reduction Targets

                                                                                    • 45% below 1990 levels by 2035 
                                                                                    • 80% below 1990 levels by 2050

                                                                                    Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                    • By 2040: 50% clean energy

                                                                                    Past Legislation

                                                                                    • SB 0098 (2019)
                                                                                      • Sets voluntary renewable natural gas (RNG) goals for natural gas utilities.
                                                                                    • SB 1547: The Clean Electricity and Coal Transition Act (2016)
                                                                                      • Commits the state to eliminate its use of coal power by 2035.
                                                                                      • Doubles the amount of clean, renewable energy serving Oregonians to 50 percent by 2040.

                                                                                    Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                                                                                    • Carbon Costs Coalition: Oregon legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

                                                                                    Further Reading

                                                                                    Key Figures

                                                                                    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                    66.9

                                                                                    Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                    🅲 Commercial: 5.84%
                                                                                    🅴 Electric: 27.95%
                                                                                    🆁 Residential: 6.31%
                                                                                    🅸 Industrial: 14.21%
                                                                                    🆃 Transportation: 20.7
                                                                                    🅾 Other: 8.44%

                                                                                    Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                    States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                    7

                                                                                    Climate Goals

                                                                                    Oregon established its legally enforceable mandates in 2007 to reduce emissions

                                                                                    By 2035:

                                                                                    45%

                                                                                    below 1990 levels

                                                                                    By 2050:

                                                                                    80%

                                                                                    below 1990 levels

                                                                                    Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                    Enacted on the executive level
                                                                                    Under consideration on the legislative level

                                                                                    Pennsylvania

                                                                                    Pennsylvania is a leading producer of fossil fuels and has historically lagged behind the other states in the Northeast on climate ambition. However, the election of Democratic Governor Tom Wolf in 2015 shifted Pennsylvania’s climate policy.

                                                                                    In 2019, Governor Tom Wolf (D) issued an executive order instructing the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), making Pennsylvania the first major fossil-fuel producing state to join the program. In September, the state legislature passed bills (HB2025/SB950) requiring legislative approval before the state can join RGGI. Governor Wolf vetoed these bills, and the RGGI rulemaking process has continued through the DEP. Pennsylvania is expected to join the program starting in 2022. Pennsylvania has also been a part of the development process for the Transportation and Climate Initiative.

                                                                                    More on Pennsylvania

                                                                                    2021-2022 Legislation 

                                                                                    • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 5, 2020 and is scheduled to adjourn on November 30, 2022.

                                                                                    Political Context

                                                                                    • For the first time, Democratic Governor Tom Wolf has set strong carbon reduction goals for the state. 
                                                                                    • With the passage of Executive Order 2019-01, Governor Wolf set new emissions reduction goals: 26% reduction of emissions by 2025 from 2005 levels and 80% reduction of emissions by 2050 from 2005 levels. He also established GreenGov Council, which is charged with incorporating environmentally sustainable practices into Pennsylvania’s policy, planning, operations, procurement, and regulatory functions.Republicans hold slight majorities in Senate (28-21-1) and House (111-92), which would make enacting climate policy through legislative means difficult. 
                                                                                    • Pennsylvania joined the US Climate Alliance in 2019.

                                                                                    Constitutional Constraints

                                                                                    • The Pennsylvania state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                                                                                    Emission Reduction Targets

                                                                                    • By 2025: 26% below 2005 levels
                                                                                    • By 2050: 80% below 2005 levels 

                                                                                    Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                    • By 2020-2021: 18% clean energy

                                                                                    Past Legislation

                                                                                    • N/A

                                                                                    Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

                                                                                    • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Wolf (D) announced plans to join RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states.
                                                                                    • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Wolf has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 

                                                                                    Further Reading

                                                                                    Key Figures

                                                                                    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                    285.7

                                                                                    Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                    🅲 Commercial: 4.32%
                                                                                    🅴 Electric: 25.62%
                                                                                    🆁 Residential: 7.64%
                                                                                    🅸 Industrial: 34.82%
                                                                                    🆃 Transportation: 23.24%
                                                                                    🅾 Other: 4.36%

                                                                                    Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                    States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                    28

                                                                                    Climate Goals

                                                                                    Pennsylvania established its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

                                                                                    By 2025:

                                                                                    26%

                                                                                    below 2005 levels

                                                                                    By 2050:

                                                                                    80%

                                                                                    below 2005 levels

                                                                                    Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                    Enacted on the regional level:

                                                                                    Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                                                                    Under consideration on the regional level:

                                                                                    Transportation and Climate Initiative

                                                                                    Under consideration on the executive and legislative levels

                                                                                    Rhode Island

                                                                                    Rhode Island, although small, has made meaningful progress on climate ambition. On January 17th, 2020, Governor Gina Raimondo (D) signed an executive order that mandates Rhode Island achieve 100% renewable electricity by 2030, the most ambitious 10-year energy target that currently exists in the U.S. This executive order will authorize a report conducted by the Office of Energy Resources to be finished by the end of 2020 to analyze the state’s economy and economic sector, and determine a comprehensive plan to reach the 2030 target. 

                                                                                    Although Rhode Island has strong greenhouse gas emissions goals, the state legislature has rejected several attempts at codifying them into law and making them legally binding. A carbon pricing study signed into law two years ago (S108/H6305) finally received funding from settlement money the state received from the Volkswagen emissions scandal. 

                                                                                    In December 2020, Rhode Island joined Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Washington, DC to sign the Transportation and Climate Initiative, a regional cap-and-trade program for the transportation sector.

                                                                                    More on Rhode Island

                                                                                    2021 Legislation

                                                                                    • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 5th and is scheduled to adjourn on June 30th.

                                                                                    Political Context

                                                                                    • Rhode Island has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                                                                                    • Democratic Gov. Gina Raimondo has supported carbon pricing in the past, but stated in October 2018 that the state is too small to adopt its own program.
                                                                                    • With the passage of Executive Order 19-06, Governor Raimondo charged the Division of Public Utilities and Carriers and the Office of Energy Resources to lead a Heating Sector Transformation with the goal of reducing emissions from the heating sector.
                                                                                    • Democrats have overwhelming majorities in the Senate (33-5) and House (66-8-1).
                                                                                    • Rhode Island joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

                                                                                    Emission Reduction Targets

                                                                                    • By 2020: 10% below 1990 levels
                                                                                    • By 2035: 45% below 1990 levels
                                                                                    • By 2050: 80% below 1990 levels 

                                                                                    Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                    • By 2019: 14.5% clean energy
                                                                                    • By 2035: 38.5% clean energy

                                                                                    Past Legislation

                                                                                    • Resilient Rhode Island Act (2014)
                                                                                      • Sets emissions reductions goals: 10% below 1990 levels by 2020, 45% by 2035, and 80% by 2050.
                                                                                      • established the Executive Climate Change Coordinating Council (EC4) charged with developing and tracking the implementation of a plan to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets.

                                                                                      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                                                                                      • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Rhode Island remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
                                                                                      • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Gina Raimondo (D) has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 
                                                                                      • Carbon Costs Coalition: Rhode Island legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

                                                                                      Further Reading

                                                                                      Key Figures

                                                                                      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                      12.6

                                                                                      Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                      🅲 Commercial: 6.82%
                                                                                      🅴 Electric: 27.19%
                                                                                      🆁 Residential: 13.98%
                                                                                      🅸 Industrial: 16.57%
                                                                                      🆃 Transportation: 33.53%
                                                                                      🅾 Other: 1.90%

                                                                                      Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                      States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                      10

                                                                                      Climate Goals

                                                                                      Rhode Island established its legally enforceable mandates in 2014 to reduce emissions

                                                                                      By 2020:

                                                                                      10%

                                                                                      below 1990 levels

                                                                                      By 2035:

                                                                                      45%

                                                                                      below 1990 levels

                                                                                      By 2050:

                                                                                      80%

                                                                                      below 1990 levels

                                                                                      Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                      Enacted on the regional level:

                                                                                      Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                                                                      Under consideration on the regional level:

                                                                                      Transportation and Climate Initiative

                                                                                      Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                                                                                      South Carolina

                                                                                      South Carolina, in general, has not been a leader on climate policy. However, in May 2019, South Carolina passed the Energy Freedom Act, which encourages a more resilient, clean energy future by supporting solar affordability and battery storage technology. The legislation changes previous policies and programs that had restricted renewable energy growth and creates pathways to increase renewable energy production in the state.

                                                                                      Due to severe climate-induced flooding in South Carolina, there has been political will to take action on climate resilience to flooding. In 2020, the state legislature passed The Disaster Relief and Resilience Act, which created an Office of Resilience, and passed S217, which allowed municipalities to use hospitality tax funding towards sea-level rise projects.

                                                                                      More on South Carolina

                                                                                      2021-2022 Legislation

                                                                                      • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 12th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 15th, 2022.

                                                                                      Political Context

                                                                                      • South Carolina has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                                                                                      • Republicans hold an 81-43 majority in the South Carolina House of Representatives, and a 30-16 majority in the State Senate.
                                                                                      • Republican Gov. Henry McMaster supported President Trump’s decision to abandon the Paris Agreement.

                                                                                      Past Legislation 

                                                                                      • S217 (2020)
                                                                                        • Allows local leaders to access state accommodations, local hospitality and local accommodations tax dollars for public works projects to mitigate or eliminate effects of sea-level rise.
                                                                                      • S259: The Disaster Relief and Resilience Act (2020)
                                                                                        • Creates an Office of Resilience to oversee a statewide plan addressing flood risks and mitigation efforts.
                                                                                        • Establishes a fund for local governments to voluntarily buy out properties that have flooded repeatedly and remove them from floodplains.
                                                                                      • H3659: Energy Freedom Act (2019)
                                                                                        • Extends current customer “net metering” energy credit system until June 1, 2021.
                                                                                        • Utilities will propose programs for individuals to participate in community-based solar projects and get credit for the output on their bills.
                                                                                        • Requires utilities to file a voluntary renewable program for commercial and industrial customers that will be reviewed and approved by PSC.
                                                                                        • Improves existing Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) process by requiring utility to show in the IRP a cost analysis of several alternative futures, including futures with higher levels of renewable energy and energy efficiency
                                                                                        • Establishes an updated process for interconnection of large-scale solar to the grid.

                                                                                      Emission Reduction Target 

                                                                                      • N/A

                                                                                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                      • By 2021: 2% clean energy

                                                                                      Further Reading 

                                                                                      Key Figures

                                                                                      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in South Carolina? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                                                                      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                      77.4

                                                                                      Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                      🅲 Commercial: 2.99
                                                                                      🅴 Electric: 37.18
                                                                                      🆁 Residential: 2.64
                                                                                      🅸 Industrial: 12.44
                                                                                      🆃 Transportation: 44.74
                                                                                      🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                                      Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                      States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                      27

                                                                                      Climate Goals

                                                                                      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                      Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                      Not yet considered

                                                                                      South Dakota

                                                                                      South Dakota has not made significant progress on climate policy. It has been rapidly expanding wind energy throughout the state after lawmakers passed a measure to reduce the state tax on wind production by about one-third per kilowatt of energy produced. Between June 2018 and July 2019, eight major wind energy projects were approved, projected to bring 700 more wind turbines and an investment of $2.6 billion in the state by 2020. Another two projects currently under review would bring that up to almost 900 total new turbines and an investment of $3.3 billion by energy companies.

                                                                                      Hydro power has also been increasingly expanded throughout South Dakota, and in 2019, renewable energy accounted for approximately 68% of South Dakota’s electricity source. Hydroelectric power made up about 45% of total energy and wind approximately 24%.

                                                                                      More on South Dakota

                                                                                      2021 Legislation

                                                                                      • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 12th and is scheduled to adjourn on March 29th.

                                                                                      Political Context

                                                                                      • South Dakota has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                                                                                      • Republicans hold a 59-11 supermajority in the South Dakota House of Representatives, and a 30-5 supermajority in the State Senate. 
                                                                                      • Republican Gov. Kristi Noem supported the Keystone XL pipeline and offshore drilling projects, and opposes ending tax breaks for oil companies. 

                                                                                      Constitutional Constraints

                                                                                      • The South Dakota state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                                                                                      Past Legislation 

                                                                                      • N/A

                                                                                      Emission Reduction Target 

                                                                                      • N/A

                                                                                      Further Reading 

                                                                                      • N/A

                                                                                      Key Figures

                                                                                      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in South Dakota? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                                                                      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                      16.3

                                                                                      Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                      🅲 Commercial: 5.39%
                                                                                      🅴 Electric: 17.60%
                                                                                      🆁 Residential: 7.36%
                                                                                      🅸 Industrial: 26.51%
                                                                                      🆃 Transportation: 43.13%
                                                                                      🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                                      Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                      States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                      31

                                                                                      Climate Goals

                                                                                      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                      Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                      Not yet considered

                                                                                      Tennessee

                                                                                      Tennessee has not made meaningful progress on climate action. However, in the absence of state policy, cities have started to lead the way. The City of Knoxville’s Energy and Sustainability Initiative has demonstrated leadership by establishing emission reduction targets; the initiative aims to reduce emissions within city operations and the community at large by 20% by 2020, 50% by 2030 and 80% by 2050 relative to 2005 levels. In 2019, the city of Nashville passed a suite of renewable energy policies that established a target of 100% renewable energy for municipal buildings by 2041, established a fleet schedule for low- or zero-emissions vehicles owned by the Metropolitan Government of Nashville, and required LEED Platinum certification for new construction of city owned buildings. 

                                                                                      In 2017, the Tennessee Energy Policy Council was established (HB 0438/SB 1250) to create a comprehensive plan for the state’s energy production. The Council has not focused on expanding renewable production or reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants.

                                                                                      More on Tennessee

                                                                                      2021-2022 Legislation

                                                                                      • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 12th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on May 7th, 2022.

                                                                                      Political Context

                                                                                      • Tennessee has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                                                                                      • Republicans hold a 73-26 supermajority in the Tennessee House of Representatives, and a 27-6 supermajority in the State Senate. 
                                                                                      • Republican Gov. Bill Lee has expressed uncertainty about the causes of climate change. 

                                                                                      Past Legislation 

                                                                                      • N/A

                                                                                      Emission Reduction Target 

                                                                                      • N/A

                                                                                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                      • N/A

                                                                                      Further Reading 

                                                                                      Key Figures

                                                                                      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                      99.5

                                                                                      Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                      🅲 Commercial: 4.34%
                                                                                      🅴 Electric: 26.21%
                                                                                      🆁 Residential: 4.66%
                                                                                      🅸 Industrial: 18.31%
                                                                                      🆃 Transportation: 46.48%
                                                                                      🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                                      Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                      States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                      23

                                                                                      Climate Goals

                                                                                      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                      Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                      Under consideration on the legislative level

                                                                                      Texas

                                                                                      Texas has not made significant progress on climate action. It is far and away the highest carbon-emitting state in the U.S. The state produced 657 million tons of carbon in 2016, 5% higher than the year before and nearly twice as much as California, the second-biggest polluter. It’s also one of the most at-risk states, prone to extreme heat, drought and wildfires. Climate legislation has not been successful in the state legislature thus far, although disaster recovery and resilience measures have made some progress without the mention of climate change, particularly after the wrath of Hurricane Harvey.  

                                                                                      More on Texas

                                                                                      2021 Legislation 

                                                                                      • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 12th and is scheduled to adjourn on May 28th.

                                                                                      Political Context

                                                                                      • Texas has a Republican state government trifecta.
                                                                                      • Republican Gov. Greg Abbott has regularly opposed strong climate policy. He supported the appointment of Scott Pruitt to head the EPA, and maintains that though the Earth’s climate is changing, it’s unclear if humans play a significant role. 
                                                                                      • Significant Republican majorities in both the Senate (19-12) and House (83-67) make advancing strong climate policy difficult.

                                                                                      Constitutional Constraints

                                                                                      • The Texas state constitution requires 75% of revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes. The remaining 25% must go towards public education funding.

                                                                                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                      • By 2015: 5,880 MW clean energy
                                                                                      • By 2025: 10,000 MW clean energy

                                                                                      Past Legislation 

                                                                                      • Senate Bill 7 (2019)
                                                                                        • Drew $1.7 billion from the state’s “rainy day fund” to help pay for flood control projects and repairs across the state.

                                                                                      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                                                                                      • N/A

                                                                                      Further Reading

                                                                                      Key Figures

                                                                                      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                      875.1

                                                                                      Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                      🅲 Commercial: 1.73%
                                                                                      🅴 Electric: 23.09%
                                                                                      🆁 Residential: 1.56%
                                                                                      🅸 Industrial: 44.84%
                                                                                      🆃 Transportation: 28.79%
                                                                                      🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                                      Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                      States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                      40

                                                                                      Climate Goals

                                                                                      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                      Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                      Under consideration on the legislative level

                                                                                      Utah

                                                                                      For a state with a Republican government trifecta, Utah has shown promise with climate policy. In 2020, legislators introduced the “Utah Roadmap,” which plans to be one of the most aggressive climate solutions in a Republican-led state. This bill proposes solutions to reduce carbon emissions 25 percent below 2005 levels by 2025 and 80 percent by 2050 by focusing on decreasing air pollution. This will involve dramatically reducing coal production throughout the state and increasing electric vehicle infrastructure. 

                                                                                      In 2019, Utah lawmakers once again filed a “tax swap” carbon pricing bill that imposes a fee on pollution but in return reduces other state taxes in order to lessen the burden on consumers. The same legislation was filed in 2018 and received some bipartisan support, but the Republican co-sponsors for that bill have retired. After the bill failed in the legislature two years in a row, a group of citizens coming together under the name Clean the Darn Air launched a campaign to put carbon pricing on the ballot in 2020. The group was unable to meet the signature threshold to earn a place on the 2020 ballot. The group is now shifting its focus to future years, and there are plans to refile the petition in 2020 to make it on the ballot in 2022 or 2024.

                                                                                      More on Utah

                                                                                      2021 Legislation

                                                                                      The 2021 Legislative Session convenes January 19th and is scheduled to adjourn on March 5th.

                                                                                      • Rep. Joel Brisco introduced the Utah Roadmap Resolution (HCR011) to support the recommendations made in the Utah Roadmap. 
                                                                                        • Status: Currently in the House Rules Committee.

                                                                                      Political Context

                                                                                      • Newly elected in the 2020 election, Republican Gov. Spencer Cox has acknowledged human-induced climate change and has recognized that climate change played a role in Utah’s wildfires.
                                                                                      • Republican Gov. Gary Herbert has expressed stiff opposition to carbon pricing, though he stated he is “willing to have the discussion” on the Clean the Darn Air initiative. 
                                                                                      • Republicans hold firm majorities in both the Senate (23-6) and House (59-16). 
                                                                                      • Utah has a Republican state government trifecta.
                                                                                      • Utah’s budget this year includes $200,000 for a study on how climate change will impact the state.

                                                                                      Constitutional Constraints

                                                                                      • The Utah state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                                                                                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Target

                                                                                      • By 2025: 20% clean electricity

                                                                                      Past Legislation

                                                                                      • N/A

                                                                                      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                                                                                      • Carbon Costs Coalition: Utah is a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

                                                                                      Further Reading

                                                                                      Key Figures

                                                                                      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                      62.1

                                                                                      Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                      🅲 Commercial: 4.50%
                                                                                      🅴 Electric: 46.01%
                                                                                      🆁 Residential: 6.32%
                                                                                      🅸 Industrial: 12.77%
                                                                                      🆃 Transportation: 30.39%
                                                                                      🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                                      Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                      States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                      33

                                                                                      Climate Goals

                                                                                      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                      Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                      Under consideration on the legislative level

                                                                                      Vermont

                                                                                      Vermont has made some progress on climate action, although it lags behind some of its neighbors in the Northeast. Republican Governor Phil Scott has not been supportive of climate action in the past. In 2020, the Vermont Global Warming Solutions Act passed in the legislature, cementing strong emissions reductions goals and creating a 22-member council to come up with a pollution reduction plan. This Act was vetoed by Governor Scott, but overridden by the legislature shortly after. 

                                                                                      Cities have also shown some progress in Vermont. On October 11th, 2019, Burlington Mayor Miro Weinberger proposed a state-wide carbon pollution fee starting at $30 per ton on heating and transportation fuels. The fee and rebate policy would cut statewide emissions by 37% by 2040 and boost economic growth. Burlington will also begin to use an internal carbon price to evaluate major purchasing decisions.

                                                                                      More on Vermont

                                                                                      2021-2022 Legislation 

                                                                                      • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 6th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on May 28th, 2022.

                                                                                      Political Context

                                                                                      Emission Reduction Targets

                                                                                      • By 2030: 40% below 1990 levels
                                                                                      • By 2050: 80-90% below 1990 levels 

                                                                                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                      • By 2017: 55% clean energy
                                                                                      • By 2032: 75% clean energy

                                                                                      Past Legislation

                                                                                      • H.688: Vermont Global Warming Solutions Act (2020)
                                                                                        • Requires the state to reduce greenhouse gas pollution to 26% below 2005 levels by 2025, 40% below 1990 levels by 2030, and 80% below by 2050. 
                                                                                        • Creates a 22-member council, comprising state government officials, citizen experts and others, to come up with a pollution reduction plan by Dec. 1, 2021.

                                                                                          Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                                                                                          • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Vermont remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
                                                                                          • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Phil Scott (R) has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 
                                                                                          • Carbon Costs Coalition: Six Vermont legislators (Rep. Curt McCormack, Rep. David Deen, Rep. Mary Sullivan, Rep. Mike Yantachka, Rep. Copeland-Hanzas, Sen. Pearson) are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on pricing carbon. 

                                                                                          Further Reading 

                                                                                          Key Figures

                                                                                          Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                          10.4

                                                                                          Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                          🅲 Commercial: 8.07%
                                                                                          🅴 Electric: 7.82%
                                                                                          🆁 Residential: 13.87%
                                                                                          🅸 Industrial: 16.42%
                                                                                          🆃 Transportation: 40.65%
                                                                                          🅾 Other: 13.17%

                                                                                          Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                          States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                          9

                                                                                          Climate Goals

                                                                                          Vermont established its legally enforceable mandates in 2016 to reduce emissions

                                                                                          By 2030:

                                                                                          40%

                                                                                          below 1990 levels

                                                                                          By 2050:

                                                                                          80–95%

                                                                                          below 1990 levels

                                                                                          Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                          Enacted on the regional level:

                                                                                          Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                                                                          Under consideration on the regional level:

                                                                                          Transportation and Climate Initiative

                                                                                          Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                                                                                          Virginia

                                                                                          Virginia has made significant climate action in recent years. Current Gov. Ralph Northam (D) campaigned on the promise of strong climate action, pledging to make Virginia the first Southern state to participate in RGGI. But Republicans, previously holding a three-seat majority in the General Assembly, fiercely opposed the state’s entry into the cap-and-trade program in 2019. In a disappointing turn of events, Northam signed a budget that included a GOP provision prohibiting state dollars from being spent to “support membership or participation” in RGGI, effectively barring program administration.

                                                                                          Despite the GOP majority, Gov. Northam continued to use his executive power to push climate action in Virginia. On September 17th 2019, Gov. Northam issued an executive order to expand access to renewable energy and set more ambitious targets for clean electricity generation. Northam set a goal of 30% renewable electricity by 2030 and 100% carbon-free electricity by 2050, with more ambitious targets for the Commonwealth’s agencies and executive branch institutions.

                                                                                          In the 2019 Virginia state election, Democrats flipped both houses of the Virginia legislature for the first time in 26 years. With Democrats holding the Governor’s Office, Senate, and the House, state legislators began focusing on climate efforts. In the 2020 session in Virginia, before the COVID-19 epidemic swept the nation, the Virginia General Assembly was able to push through a comprehensive climate bill in March, the Virginia Clean Economy Act. 

                                                                                          In 2020, The Virginia Clean Economy Act (SB 94/HB 1526) passed which allows Virginia to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and outlines a plan for Virginia to become carbon neutral by 2050 through reducing energy waste through efficiency and increasing access to renewable energy. Virginia is scheduled to join RGGI in 2021.

                                                                                          More on Virginia

                                                                                          2021 Legislation

                                                                                          • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 13th and is scheduled to adjourn on February 13th.

                                                                                          Political Context

                                                                                          • For the first time since 1994, Democrats gained a majority in both the House (54-43) and the Senate (21-19) in the November 2019 general election.
                                                                                          • Gov. Ralph Northam (D) has acted in favor of climate action by supporting Pennsylvania’s entry into the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, environmental justice initiatives, and coastal resiliency.
                                                                                          • With the passage of Executive Order 24 in 2018, Governor Northam directed state agencies to develop mitigation strategies to reduce the near and long term impacts of natural hazards and extreme weather. The order resulted in the publication of the Virginia Coastal Resilience Master Planning Framework in October 2020. 
                                                                                          • Virginia presently has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                                                                                          • Virginia joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

                                                                                          Past Legislation

                                                                                          • On January 8th, 2020, House Bill 1526 was introduced by Del. Sullivan called the Clean Economy Act, which would, among other things, allow Virginia to join RGGI.
                                                                                            • Fee system: Aligned with the RGGI system
                                                                                            • Revenue Breakdown: 
                                                                                              • 45% of the revenue shall be credited to the account established pursuant to funds for the purpose of assisting localities and their residents affected by recurrent flooding, sea level rise, and flooding from severe weather events.
                                                                                              • 50% will go towards a fund supporting low-income energy efficiency programs.
                                                                                              • 3% will be used for administrative costs for the auction.
                                                                                              • 2% will be used for administrative costs to administer the low-income energy efficiency programs. 
                                                                                            • Status: Passed through the House on February 11th. 
                                                                                            • In the Senate, Senate Bill 94, a similar version of the House bill, passed on January 24th. 
                                                                                          • HB 1042 (2020)
                                                                                            • Establishes the Virginia Council on Environmental Justice, consisting of 27 members, as a permanent body to advise the Governor and provide recommendations intended to protect vulnerable communities from disproportionate impacts of pollution and provide such communities meaningful involvement in the decision-making process.
                                                                                            • The Council released its most recent annual Environmental Justice Report in 2020.
                                                                                          • SB 966: The Grid Transformation and Security Act (2018)
                                                                                            • Enables Virginia’s electric utilities to modernize the grid, emphasizing investment in clean energy technology.
                                                                                            • Increases the amount of utility-scale solar from 500 MW to 5,000 MW over ten years, with 3,000 MW coming in the first four years.

                                                                                          Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                          • By 2030: 30% clean electricity
                                                                                          • By 2050: 100% clean electricity

                                                                                          Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                                                                                          Further Reading

                                                                                          Key Figures

                                                                                          Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                          150.9

                                                                                          Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                          🅲 Commercial: 4.59%
                                                                                          🅴 Electric: 29.82%
                                                                                          🆁 Residential: 4.56%
                                                                                          🅸 Industrial: 18.49%
                                                                                          🆃 Transportation: 34.34%
                                                                                          🅾 Other: 8.21%

                                                                                          Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                          States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                          12

                                                                                          Climate Goals

                                                                                          No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                          Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                          Enacted on the regional level:

                                                                                          Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                                                                                          Under consideration on the regional level:

                                                                                          Transportation and Climate Initiative

                                                                                          Under consideration on the executive level

                                                                                          Washington

                                                                                          Washington is a clear climate leader for the entire country. Democratic Governor Jay Inslee has spearheaded climate ambition in the state since his election in 2013. Washington has some of the most ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction. In 2019, Washington became the 5th state or territory to commit to 100% clean electricity. Specifically, HB 1211 committed Washington to 100% carbon neutral electricity by 2030 and 100% clean energy by 2045.

                                                                                          Also in 2019, Washington passed the Clean Buildings Act passing the most ambitious green building standard in the country. This act requires commercial buildings to achieve efficiency standards starting in 2026 and creates a new statewide incentive program to help underwrite early retrofits. 

                                                                                          Most recently, in 2020 Washington passed HB 2311 enhancing the state’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets to better reflect current science. The new targets are: 45 percent below 1990 levels by 2030, 70 percent below 1990 levels by 2040, and 95 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.

                                                                                          More on Washington

                                                                                          2021-2022 Legislation

                                                                                          • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 11th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on April 20th, 2022.

                                                                                          Political Context

                                                                                          • Washington has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                                                                                          • Gov. Jay Inslee has made a name for himself as a long-time advocate of climate policy. In his 2020 presidential run, Inslee kept climate change a central part of his platform. Inslee is focusing on a clean fuel standard as the best available weapon against climate change. Democrats currently hold majorities in both the House (57-41) and Senate (29-20).

                                                                                          Emission Reduction Targets 

                                                                                          • By 2030: 45% below 1990 levels
                                                                                          • By 2040: 70% below 1990 levels
                                                                                          • By 2050: 95% below 1990 levels

                                                                                          Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                          • By 2030: 100% clean energy

                                                                                          Past Legislation

                                                                                          • “An Act Relating to amending state greenhouse gas emission limits…” (HB 2311/SB 6272) was signed by the Governor in March 2020.
                                                                                            • Modifies state greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets to 
                                                                                              • 45 percent below 1990 levels by 2030 
                                                                                              • 70 percent below 1990 levels by 2040
                                                                                              • 95 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.
                                                                                            • Establishes a net zero greenhouse gas emissions target for 2050 for state government and for the state as a whole.
                                                                                            • “An Act Relating to supporting Washington’s clean energy economy…” (SB 5116/HB 1211) (2019)
                                                                                              • Requires all electric utilities to eliminate from electric rates all costs associated with delivering electricity generated from coal-fired power plants by December 31, 2025. 
                                                                                              • Requires each electric utility to make all retail sales of electricity greenhouse gas neutral by January 1, 2030. 
                                                                                              • Requires each electric utility to meet 100 percent of its retail electric load using non-emitting and renewable resources by January 1, 2045.
                                                                                            • Clean Buildings Act (HB 1257) (2019)
                                                                                              • Requires the Department of Commerce to adopt rules for commercial buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet setting energy intensity targets (measured by energy consumption per square foot of commercial space) by building type.
                                                                                              • Requires energy management plans for covered buildings that include operations and maintenance improvements, energy efficiency audits, and investment in energy efficiency measures designed to meet the energy intensity targets. 

                                                                                                Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

                                                                                                • Carbon Costs Coalition: Washington legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

                                                                                                Further Reading

                                                                                                Key Figures

                                                                                                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                                109.2

                                                                                                Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                                🅲 Commercial: 4.79%
                                                                                                🅴 Electric: 16.12%
                                                                                                🆁 Residential: 5.69%
                                                                                                🅸 Industrial: 20.87%
                                                                                                🆃 Transportation: 42.55%
                                                                                                🅾 Other: 9.98%

                                                                                                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                                States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                                6

                                                                                                Climate Goals

                                                                                                Washington established its legally enforceable mandates in 2008 to reduce emissions

                                                                                                By 2030:

                                                                                                45%

                                                                                                below 1990 levels

                                                                                                By 2040:

                                                                                                70%

                                                                                                below 1990 levels

                                                                                                By 2050:

                                                                                                95%

                                                                                                below 1990 levels

                                                                                                Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                                Under consideration on the executive and legislative levels

                                                                                                West Virginia

                                                                                                West Virginia has not made significant progress on climate action. Coal-fired power plants account for over 90% of West Virginia’s net electricity generation, and the state does not have a statewide energy plan or Renewable Portfolio Standard that would incentivize clean energy production. Carbon pricing legislation and other climate policies have a long way to go before being introduced in the state.

                                                                                                More on West Virginia

                                                                                                2021 Legislation

                                                                                                • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on February 10th and is scheduled to adjourn on April 10th.

                                                                                                Political Context

                                                                                                • West Virginia has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                                                                                                • Republicans have a 76-24 majority in the West Virginia House of Representatives, and a 23-11 majority in the State Senate. 
                                                                                                • Republican Gov. Jim Justice comes from a coal background and has been opposed to progressive climate policy.

                                                                                                Constitutional Constraints

                                                                                                • The West Virginia state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                                                                                                Past Legislation

                                                                                                • SB 583/HB 4562 (2020)
                                                                                                  • Creates a utility solar program in West Virginia where FirstEnergy and American Electric Power can each install up to 200 megawatts of solar power in 50 megawatt increments.

                                                                                                Emission Reduction Target

                                                                                                • N/A

                                                                                                Further Reading 

                                                                                                • N/A

                                                                                                Key Figures

                                                                                                • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in West Virginia? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                                                                                                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                                91.3

                                                                                                Emissions by Sector (%)

                                                                                                🅲 Commercial: 2.01%
                                                                                                🅴 Electric: 66.96%
                                                                                                🆁 Residential: 1.99%
                                                                                                🅸 Industrial: 14.31%
                                                                                                🆃 Transportation: 14.73%
                                                                                                🅾 Other: 0%

                                                                                                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                                                                                                States from lowest to highest intensity

                                                                                                48

                                                                                                Climate Goals

                                                                                                No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                                                                                                Carbon Pricing Status

                                                                                                Not yet considered

                                                                                                Wisconsin

                                                                                                Wisconsin has not historically been a leader on climate action. Despite pushback from the legislature, Wisconsin Gov. Tony Evers (D) is pushing for clean energy adoption. On August 16th, 2019, Evers signed an executive order calling for the state’s energy usage to be 100% carbon-free by 2050, making Wisconsin the first Midwestern state with a 100% clean electricity commitment. The order also establishes a new Office of Sustainability and Clean Energy, which will develop the state’s clean energy plan and ensure Wisconsin reaches the carbon reduction goals of the Paris Climate Accords. 

                                                                                                With the passage of Executive Order 52 in October 2019, Evers created a climate change task force to come up with recommendations to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. Lieutenant Governor Mandela Barnes will serve as chairman of the task force; other members include Republican and Democratic members of the Legislature and representatives from the state’s agriculture, energy, health, business, education and environmental sectors.

                                                                                                More on Wisconsin

                                                                                                2021-2022 Legislation

                                                                                                • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 4th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on December 31st, 2022.

                                                                                                Political Context

                                                                                                • Republicans hold a 61-38 majority in the Wisconsin State Assembly, and a 19-14 majority in the State Senate.
                                                                                                • Democratic Gov. Tony Evers joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in February 2019, pledging Wisconsin to meet Paris Agreement obligations. 

                                                                                                Past Legislation 

                                                                                                • N/A

                                                                                                Emission Reduction Target

                                                                                                • N/A

                                                                                                Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                                                                                                • By 2050: 100% clean energy

                                                                                                Further Reading

                                                                                                Key Figures

                                                                                                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                                                                                                105.6