STATE CLIMATE POLICY NETWORK

The State Climate Policy Network (SCPN) is a rapidly-growing project within the organization that includes more than 11,000 advocates and policymakers across the country who are pushing for effective and equitable climate policies in their states. We help provide these individuals with the tools they need to advance their campaigns and increase cross-collaboration. Click on the states below for up-to-date policies and emissions data. 

Alabama

Alabama has not made significant progress on climate action, although its emissions have been declining over the past decade. The state does not have an established climate action plan or greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. The state government has made small efforts toward reducing emissions; Governor Kay Ivey (R) signed a gas tax increase in March 2019 that enacts an annual $200 fee on electric vehicles (EV) and $100 for hybrid vehicles, with some of the revenue funding a grant program to install EV charging centers in Alabama.

More on Alabama

2021 Legislation

  • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on February 2nd and is scheduled to adjourn May 31st.

Political Context

  • Alabama has a Republican state government trifecta. 
  • The Alabama House of Representatives has 77 Republicans and 28 Democrats, and the state Senate has 27 Republicans and 8 Democrats. 
  • Republican Gov. Kay Ivey has not prioritized environmental legislation. 

Constitutional Constraints

  • The Alabama state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

Past Legislation 

  • N/A

Emission Reduction Target

  • N/A

Further Reading

  • N/A

Key Figures

  • N/A

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

116.3

Emissions by Sector (%)

🅲 Commercial: 2.06%
🅴 Electric: 46.29%
🆁 Residential: 1.99%
🅸 Industrial: 19.72%
🆃 Transportation: 29.93%
🅾 Other: 0%

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

38

Climate Goals

No state-wide emissions reductions targets

Carbon Pricing Status

Not yet considered

Alaska

Gov. Bill Walker established the Climate Action for Alaska Leadership Team via administrative order in 2017. The Team released a proposed action plan that included recommendations for a carbon pricing scheme. However, in December of 2018, Walker was replaced by Republican Gov. Mike Dunleavy who eliminated the Team, likely delaying serious climate action in the state. In 2019, the Anchorage Assembly voted to adopt a city climate action plan, which aims to reduce carbon emissions by 80% by 2050. Several other major cities like Fairbanks hope to release their own plan as well.

More on Alaska

2021–2022 Legislation

  • The 2021-22 Legislative Session convenes on January 19th and is scheduled to adjourn on May 15th, 2022.

Political Context

  • Alaska has a Republican state government trifecta.
  • Republican Gov. Dunleavy has taken the state backwards on climate policy, dismantling the Climate Action for Alaska Leadership Team established under his predecessor Gov. Bill Walker in 2017. 
  • Republicans hold a 23-15 majority in the House, with two Independents, and a 13-7 majority in the Senate.

Past Legislation

  • N/A

Emission Reduction Target

  • N/A

Further Reading

Key Figures

  • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Alaska? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

41.1

Emissions by Sector (%)

🅲 Commercial: 4.89%
🅴 Electric: 7.35%
🆁 Residential: 3.67%
🅸 Industrial: 56.91%
🆃 Transportation: 24.98%
🅾 Other: 2.20%

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

46

Climate Goals

No state-wide emissions reductions targets

Carbon Pricing Status

Not yet considered

Arizona

Arizona was once a leader on climate policy. It was a founding member of the Western Climate Initiative (WCI) regional emissions trading program in 2007, but since it’s withdrawal, has not considered carbon pricing. Recent political changes and actions have indicated that this may be changing. In 2020, the Arizona Corporation Commission upgraded Arizona’s Renewable Portfolio Standards to 50% by 2035 and 100% by 2050. They also voted to increase energy efficiency standards, requiring utilities to implement enough energy-efficiency measures by 2030 to equal 35% of their 2020 peak demand.

In the absence of state-level action, cities have led the charge on climate. Tucson has set a goal of carbon neutrality by 2030, committing the City to developing and implementing a comprehensive 10-year Climate Action and Adaptation Plan. Phoenix has drafted a Climate Action Plan Framework.

More on Arizona

2021 Legislation

  • The 2021 Legislative Session begins on January 11th and is scheduled to conclude on May 28th.

Political Context

  • Arizona has a Republican state government trifecta.
  • Arizona’s legislature and executive branch are controlled by Republicans. Republicans hold a 31–29 majority over Democrats in the House and 17–13 majority in the Senate. 
  • Republican Gov. Doug Ducey has not displayed any environmental leadership in his administration.

Constitutional Constraints

  • The Arizona state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

Past Legislation

  • N/A

Emission Reduction Target

  • 2000 levels by 2020
  • 50% below 2000 levels by 2040

Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

  • By 2035: 50% clean energy
  • By 2050: 100% clean energy

Further Reading

Key Figures

  • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Arizona? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

93.7

Emissions by Sector (%)

🅲 Commercial: 3.14%
🅴 Electric: 49.91%
🆁 Residential: 2.46%
🅸 Industrial: 6.33%
🆃 Transportation: 38.16%
🅾 Other: 0%

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

21

Climate Goals

Arizona has aspirational targets to reduce emissions

By 2020:

Return to 2000 levels

By 2040:

50%

below 2000 levels

Carbon Pricing Status

Not yet considered

Arkansas

With a Republican state government trifecta, Arkansas has not made progress on climate action. 

While no legislation for carbon pricing was filed in Arkansas this session, the Citizens’ Climate Lobby is working hard to pass clean energy initiatives. Arkansas’s CCL supported SB 145 in the Senate, which expands renewable energy use and makes it more accessible to residents. Now Act 464, the legislation was signed by Governor Asa Hutchinson (R) on March 14th, 2019.

More on Arkansas

2021 Legislation

  • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 11th and is scheduled to adjourn on April 24th.

Political Context

  • Arkansas has a Republican state government trifecta. 
  • Republican Gov. Asa Hutchinson supported Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, and has not supported emission-curbing policies. 
  • Republicans have an overwhelming majority in the Senate (26-9) and House (77-23).

Emission Reduction Targets 

  • N/A

Past Legislation

  • N/A

Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

  • N/A

Further Reading

  • N/A

Key Figures

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

73.4

Emissions by Sector (%)

🅲 Commercial: 4.79%
🅴 Electric: 50.27%
🆁 Residential: 2.96%
🅸 Industrial: 13.91%
🆃 Transportation: 28.07%
🅾 Other: 0%

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

41

Climate Goals

No state-wide emissions reductions targets

Carbon Pricing Status

Not yet considered

California

California has long been a state leader in climate change, imposing some of the most ambitious reduction targets and strongest regulations. It is currently the only state with an economy-wide cap-and-invest program. The cap-and-invest program generated $525 million in revenue in its first year alone, and almost $12 billion in aggregate since 2013. It has also been successful in helping California meet its 2020 emission reduction target, which it surpassed in 2018, and stay on track to meet its 2030 reduction goals. The devastating wildfires in California have only increased its climate ambition.

More on California

2021–2022 Legislation

  • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on December 1, 2020 and will adjourn on November 30, 2022.

Political Context

  • California has a Democratic state government trifecta. 
  • Democratic Gov. Gavin Newsom is a long-time environmentalist. He supports former Gov. Jerry Brown’s goal of California producing 100% of its energy from renewable sources by 2045, and has even stated he wants the state to be a “net exporter” of clean power, shipping surplus electricity to neighboring states. 
    • In 2019, Newsom announced California will stop buying cars from automakers that backed the Trump administration’s decision to strip the state’s authority to set stricter pollution standards.
    • In September 2020, Newsom signed an executive order banning the sale of new gas-powered cars and trucks starting in 2035. This measure is projected to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 35%.
  • California is a founding member of the US Climate Alliance.
  • Overwhelming Democratic majorities exist in both the Senate (31-9) and House (60-19-1). 

Constitutional Constraints

  • The California state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway and/or mass transit purposes.

Emission Reduction Targets

  • By 2020: 1990 levels
  • By 2030: 40% below 1990 levels 
  • By 2050: 80% below 1990 levels 

Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

  • By 2030: 60% clean energy
  • By 2045: 100% clean energy

Past Legislation

  • In 2013, California became the first US state to launch a multi-sector, cap-and-trade program. The program regulates the emissions of more than 450 businesses — large electric power plants, large industrial plants, and fuel distributors — that are collectively responsible for about 85% of the state’s total greenhouse gas emissions. 
    • Origin of program: In 2006, California’s Global Warming Solution Act (AB 32), introduced by Assemblymembers Fran Pavley and Fabien Nunez, laid the groundwork for California’s cap-and-trade program. The Act called for the California Air Resources Board (CARB) — the state’s clean air agency — to enact regulations that would allow the state to reduce its emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. These regulations ultimately came in the form of an economy-wide cap on emissions. 
    • Fee system: Entities regulated by the program are allocated a specific number of carbon allowances each year, an amount that declines annually. 
      • The California emissions cap, which stood at 358 million tons of carbon in 2018, will plummet to 200 million by 2030, a 44% decrease. 
      • After an entity pollutes beyond its allocated amount, they must purchase additional allowances via quarterly auctions. These allowances, essentially permits to pollute, are sold at a reserve price (minimum price) that increases by 5% annually. For example, in California’s August 2017 auction, allowances were sold for $15.48 per ton, even though the reserve price was $13.57. 
      • The carbon market, shaped by how much companies are willing to pay and what demand looks like, determines the price of allowances. Allowance sales are how the program raises revenue, as the initial supply of allowances provided to governments is free. 
    • Revenue breakdown: 
      • 45% invested in reducing state emissions, through renewable energy and energy efficiency measures 
      • 35% rebated to households and businesses
      • 15% allocated to energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries
      • 5% held in the state reserve
    • Status: A scoping plan for the program is updated every 5 years. In 2015, a provision was added that emissions should be 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. In 2017, legislation (AB 398) extended the cap-and-trade program through 2030.

Further Reading

Key Figures

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

425.4

Emissions by Sector (%)

🅲 Commercial: 4.30%
🅴 Electric: 14.83%
🆁 Residential: 5.43%
🅸 Industrial: 20.97%
🆃 Transportation: 39.84%
🅾 Other: 14.62%

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

3

Climate Goals

California updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2018 to reduce emissions

By 2045:

100%

Carbon Pricing Status

Enacted on the regional level:

Western Climate Initiative

Colorado

Colorado is a state making progress on climate action. On May 30th, 2019, Governor Jared Polis (D) signed SB 19-236 into law, requiring utilities to factor in the social cost of carbon when making resource planning decisions. The social cost of carbon starts at $46 per ton and increases at least with inflation. Colorado also passed the Climate Action Plan to Reduce Pollution (HB 19-1261) in 2019. Signed into law on May 30th, the bill establishes state-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction goals of 26% by 2025, 50% by 2030, and 90% by 2050 in comparison to 2005 levels. In September 2020, Governor Polis released a draft GHG Pollution Reduction Roadmap.

Cities have also shown climate leadership through initiatives such as the Boulder Climate Action Plan and Denver’s Ballot Initiative 2A, which levied a 0.25% sales tax dedicated to climate action in the city.

More on Colorado

2021 Legislation

  • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 13th and is scheduled to adjourn on May 1st.

Political Context

  • Colorado has a Democratic state government trifecta.
  • Democrats currently hold the majority in both the House (41-24) and Senate (19-16)
  • Governor Jared Polis (D) made environmental issues a cornerstone of his campaign, and has pledged to ensure the state’s energy supply is 100% renewable by 2040.
  • Colorado joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

Constitutional Constraints

  • The state constitution requires a ballot initiative to pass a tax increase.
  • Revenue from a gas tax must go towards highway purposes.

Emission Reduction Targets

  • By 2025: More than 26% below 2005 levels 
  • By 2030: More than 50% below 2005 levels
  • By 2050: More than 90% below 2005 levels

Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

In 2004, Colorado’s voters became the first in the country to adopt an RPS by ballot initiative.

  • By 2020: 30% clean energy

Past Legislation

While carbon pricing legislation has not yet been introduced at the state level, the city of Boulder made headlines in 2007, when voters approved an electric-sector carbon tax. 

  • In 2007, the city of Boulder passed the Climate Action Plan (CAP), which was branded as America’s first voter-approved tax aiming to address climate change. The fee is based on the amount of electricity consumed. 
    • Fee system: The CAP levies a tax on residents and businesses, imposing different rates depending on the sector. Xcel Energy collects the tax on its monthly utility bills, and customers subscribing to wind-generated power are exempt from taxation. 
      • The average resident pays $21 per year.
      • The average commercial organization pays $96 per year.
      • The average industrial organization, approximately 13 of the city’s largest energy users, pay $9,600 per year.
      • Based on those three sectors, annual revenue from the fee is about $1.8 million.
    • Revenue breakdown:
      • 38% to enhance commercial and industrial building energy efficiency
      • 25% to enhance residential building efficiency
      • 25% for local renewables, EVs, and market innovation
      • 12% for strategy development, outreach, and program evaluation
    • Status: In 2015, the city of Boulder voted to extend the CAP tax through 2023. So far, the tax has generated almost $18 million in revenue.
  • In 2019, a bill (SB 236) proposing that the Colorado Public Utilities Commission consider the social cost of carbon when making utility decisions was signed into law by the governor on May 30th.
    • Fee System: Price will start at $46 per ton in 2020 and increase at least by the rate of inflation.
  • HB19-1261Climate Action Plan To Reduce Pollution (2019)
    • Implements statewide goals to reduce 2025 greenhouse gas emissions by at least 26%, 2030 greenhouse gas emissions by at least 50%, and 2050 greenhouse gas emissions by at least 90% of the levels of statewide greenhouse gas emissions that existed in 2005.
  • HB19-1314– Just Transition From Coal-based Electrical Energy Economy (2019)
    • Establishes a Just Transition Office tasked with delivering programming and funding to communities and workers impacted by a transition away from coal-fired electricity and to disproportionately impacted communities who have borne the costs of pollution.
    • A just transition advisory committee will develop a draft just transition plan, and the director of the office will submit a final just transition plan to the governor and general assembly.
  • HB19-1272Housing Authority Property In Colorado New Energy Improvement District (2019)
    • allows public housing authorities to participate in the state’s property-assessed clean energy (PACE) program, a way to finance clean energy projects.
  • SB19-096 Collect Long-Term Climate Change Data (2019)
    • Requires the air quality control commission in the department of public health and environment (department) to collect greenhouse gas emissions data from greenhouse gas-emitting entities and report on the data, including a forecast of future emissions.
    • Requires the division of administration in the department to update a statewide inventory of greenhouse gas emissions by sector and to post the findings of the inventory on the division’s website through 2030.

Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

  • N/A

Further Reading

Key Figures

Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

93.2

Emissions by Sector (%)

🅲 Commercial: 4.42%
🅴 Electric: 35.73%
🆁 Residential: 8.80%
🅸 Industrial: 16.25%
🆃 Transportation: 33.73%
🅾 Other: 1.60%

Emissions Intensity Ranking

States from lowest to highest intensity

22

Climate Goals

Colorado has legally enforceable mandates to reduce emissions

By 2025:

26%

below 2005 levels

By 2030:

50%

below 2005 levels

By 2050:

90%

below 2005 levels

Carbon Pricing Status

Enacted on the municipal level in:

Boulder

Aspen

Connecticut 

Connecticut has been a member of the Regional Greenhouse Initiative since 2008, and is part of the group of states working together on the Transportation and Climate Initiative. There is much discussion on reinstating highway tolls as a revenue producer. Connecticut is one of the few Eastern Seaboard states that does not have any highway tolls. 

On September 3rd, 2019, Governor Ned Lamont (D) issued an executive order that requires the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection to create a strategy to achieve a target of a 100% carbon-free electric sector by 2040. The Governor’s Council on Climate Change (GC3) released a report in December 2018, entitled, “Building a Low Carbon Future for Connecticut: Achieving a 45% GHG Reduction by 2030.” In 2020, working groups were assembled to assess progress and provide further recommendations for each topic area. These reports were concluded in November 2020.

Connecticut has also become a leader in developing off-shore wind. In 2019, Public Act No. 19-71 was passed, establishing a process to solicit proposals from developers of offshore wind power facilities.

In December 2020, Connecticut joined Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Washington, DC to sign the Transportation and Climate Initiative, a regional cap-and-trade program for the transportation sector.

More on Connecticut

2021 Legislation

  • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 6th and is scheduled to adjourn on June 3rd.

Political Context

  • Connecticut has a Democratic state government trifecta.
  • Democratic Gov. Lamont has promised constituents he will prioritize climate issues during his first term. His goals are ambitious: for the state’s energy portfolio to be 100 percent renewable by 2040, and for all new homes and buildings to be zero carbon by 2035. He’s also advocated for the state to put a price on carbon. 
  • Democrats hold majorities in both the Senate (22-14) and House (91-60).
  • Democrats have increased their majorities in both the House and the Senate in the 2020 election.
  • Connecticut joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

Emission Reduction Targets

  • By 2020: 10% below 1990 levels
  • By 2030: 45% below 2001 levels
  • By 2050: 80% below 2001 levels 

Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

  • By 2030: 40% clean energy
  • By 2040: goal of 100% clean energy

Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

Past Legislation

  • An Act Concerning Climate Change Planning and Resiliency” (Public Act No. 18-82) 2019
    • Requires the state to achieve greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of at least 45% below 2001’s GHG emissions level by January 1, 2030;
    • Integrates GHG reductions into the Integrated Resources Plan, the Comprehensive Energy Strategy, and various other state planning documents and efforts;
    • Integrates new sea level change projections into various municipal and state planning documents, including plans of conservation and development, and municipal evacuation or hazard mitigation plans; and
    • Applies the new sea level change projections to the state’s coastal management and flood management laws.
  • HB 7156: An Act Concerning the Procurement of Energy Derived from Offshore Wind (2019)
    • Requires the state to solicit up to 2 gigawatts of offshore wind power over the next 11 years, equal to 30% of the state load. 
  • PA 18-50: An Act Concerning Connecticut’s Energy Future (2018)
    • Doubled the state’s renewable portfolio standard (RPS) from 20% by 2020 to 40% by 2030.
  • In 2015, Connecticut formed the Governor’s Council on Climate Change to evaluate ways to reach the state’s ambitious greenhouse gas emissions reduction target of 80% below 2001 levels by 2050.

Further Reading

Key Figures

    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

    48.1

    Emissions by Sector (%)

    🅲 Commercial: 9.39%
    🅴 Electric: 22.46%
    🆁 Residential: 16.05%
    🅸 Industrial: 11.90%
    🆃 Transportation: 35.00%
    🅾 Other: 5.20%

    Emissions Intensity Ranking

    States from lowest to highest intensity

    5

    Climate Goals

    Connecticut established its legally enforceable mandates in 2008 to reduce emissions

    By 2020:

    10%

    below 1990 levels

    By 2030:

    45%

    below 2001 levels

    By 2050:

    80%

    below 2001 levels

    Carbon Pricing Status

    Enacted on the regional level:

    Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

    Under consideration on the regional level:

    Transportation and Climate Initiative

    Delaware 

    Delaware has made some progress on climate action and is generally a follower of other states in the Northeast. A founding member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), Delaware pledged this fall to partake in another carbon pricing scheme — the Transportation and Climate Initiative (TCI) — which would cap transportation sector emissions. However, the idea of imposing a direct, multi-sector fee on carbon pollution hasn’t gained much traction in the state. The League of Women Voters of Delaware conducted a study on statewide carbon pricing in 2015, which found that pricing carbon, either via a direct fee or a regulatory mechanism like cap-and-trade, would significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 

    Delaware is in the midst of developing a comprehensive Climate Action Plan set to be finalized by December 2021. As part of this process, the state commissioned a technical study to characterize and model GHG emission sources and potential reductions.

    More on Delaware

    2021-2022 Legislation

    • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session began on January 12th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 30th, 2022.

    Political Context

    • Delaware has a Democratic state government trifecta.
    • Democratic Governor John Carney generally supports strong climate policy. He firmly opposed Trump’s repeal of the Clean Power Plan, and is a member of the U.S. Climate Alliance. He hasn’t advocated for carbon pricing, however. 
    • Democrats hold majorities in the Senate (14-7) and House (26-15).
    • The 2020 election strengthened the Democratic majority in the Senate and ushered in a wave of progressive and diverse candidates.

    Emission Reduction Targets

    • By 2030: 33% below 2008 levels 

    Past Legislation

    • N/A

    Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

    Further Reading

    • N/A

    Key Figures

    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

    17.0

    Emissions by Sector (%)

    🅲 Commercial: 8.14%
    🅴 Electric: 15.58%
    🆁 Residential: 7.45%
    🅸 Industrial: 30.48%
    🆃 Transportation: 31.87%
    🅾 Other: 6.48%

    Emissions Intensity Ranking

    States from lowest to highest intensity

    15

    Climate Goals

    Delaware established its legally enforceable mandates in 2014 to reduce emissions

    By 2030:

    30%

    below 2008 levels

    Carbon Pricing Status

    Enacted on the regional level:

    Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

    Under consideration on the regional level:

    Transportation and Climate Initiative

    Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

    Florida

    Although Florida has a Republican state government trifecta, and has for quite some time, its unique situation as a state that faces extreme climate impacts has allowed some progress to be made on climate policy, particularly as of late.

    In March 2020, the first bill passed in Florida that recognized climate change as a threat caused by humans. The bill, (SB 178), requires all state-funded buildings in coastal zones to take into account sea-level rise before they begin building. While this was the only climate bill that passed this session, a host of other climate legislation was introduced, including a bill that would’ve made the executive position of chief resilience officer permanent and a bill that would have updated the states’ renewable portfolio standard (RPS). In fact, more climate-related legislation was introduced this session in Florida than ever before.

    More on Florida

    2021 Legislation

    • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on March 2nd and is scheduled to adjourn on April 30th.

    Political Context

    • Florida has a Republican state government trifecta. 
    • Republicans hold majorities in the Senate (24-16) and House (78-42).
    • Republican Gov. Ron DeSantis previously voted against a carbon fee while in the US House of Representatives, but did issue an executive order calling for the establishment of an Office of Resilience and Coastal Protection, inherently responding to climate-related threats. 

    Past Legislation

    • Florida Senate Resolution 1572 (2020)
      • Expressing the Legislature’s support for the adoption of policies that will prepare Florida for the environmental and economic impact of climate change, sea-level rise, and flooding, and recognizing the important role that resiliency and infrastructure will play in fortifying this state, etc.
    • An Act Relating to Public Financing of Construction Projects”- SB 178 (2020)
      • Prohibiting state-financed constructors from commencing construction of certain structures in coastal areas after a specified date without first taking certain steps regarding a sea level impact projection study; requiring the Department of Environmental Protection to develop by rule a standard for such studies; providing that such rule operates prospectively on projects that have not yet commenced as of the finalization of the rule, etc.

    Emission Reduction Target

    • 1990 levels by 2025
    • 80% below 1990 levels by 2050

    Further Reading

    Key Figures

    • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Florida? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

    238.7

    Emissions by Sector (%)

    🅲 Commercial: 3.03%
    🅴 Electric: 42.05%
    🆁 Residential: 0.60%
    🅸 Industrial: 6.14%
    🆃 Transportation: 48.18%
    🅾 Other: 0%

    Emissions Intensity Ranking

    States from lowest to highest intensity

    13

    Climate Goals

    Florida established its legally enforceable mandates in 2007 to reduce emissions

    By 2017:

    Return to 2000 levels

    By 2025:

    Return to 1990 levels

    By 2050:

    80%

    below 1990 levels

    Carbon Pricing Status

    Not yet considered

    Georgia

    Although Georgia has not made much progress on climate policy, there is significant renewable energy potential in the state. Georgia ranks 7th in the nation in solar capacity and has added thousands of clean energy jobs annually. 

    Cities are leading clean energy efforts due to inaction at the state level. Atlanta has demonstrated leadership with pushing carbon-free electricity forward; in 2017, Atlanta passed Clean Energy Atlanta, a comprehensive plan to transition the city to 100% clean energy by 2035. Athens, GA is committed to 100% clean electricity by 2035 and 100% clean energy for heating and transportation by 2050; Augusta and Clarkston are committed to achieving 100% clean electricity by 2050.

    More on Georgia

    2021-2022 Legislation

    • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 11th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on April 2nd, 2022.

    Political Context

    • Georgia has a Republican state government trifecta.
    • The Georgia House of Representatives has 106 Republicans to 74 Democrats, and the State Senate has 35 Republicans to 21 Democrats. 
    • Republican Gov. Brian Kemp has not been explicit about his stance on clean energy, the environment or clean transportation. He supports “fact-based efforts” to protect the environment, but has not endorsed any specific climate policies. Kemp recommends local regulations instead of enacting statewide solutions.

    Constitutional Restraints

    • The Georgia state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

    Past Legislation

    • N/A

    Emission Reduction Target

    • N/A

    Further Reading

    Key Figures

    Bill Hawthorne; Chief Resilience Officer for City of Atlanta

    Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

    139.0

    Emissions by Sector (%)

    🅲 Commercial: 3.52%
    🅴 Electric: 37.56%
    🆁 Residential: 5.69%
    🅸 Industrial: 11.37%
    🆃 Transportation: 41.86%
    🅾 Other: 0%

    Emissions Intensity Ranking

    States from lowest to highest intensity

    20

    Climate Goals

    No state-wide emissions reductions targets

    Carbon Pricing Status

    Not yet considered

    Hawaii

    Hawaii was the first state in the country to legally commit to a zero-emissions, carbon neutral economy by 2045. The culture of sustainability is unique in Hawaii. Native Hawaiians and Hawaii residents have instilled a culture of stewardship of the environment.

    The state government has largely supported the idea of carbon pricing; Hawaii’s Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Commission firmly recommended that lawmakers enact carbon pricing, declaring that a “price on carbon is the most effective single action that will achieve Hawaii’s ambitious and necessary emissions reduction goals.” Recently, the Commission released its 2020 Annual Report.

    More on Hawaii

    2021-2022 Legislation

    • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 21st and is scheduled to adjourn May 7th, 2022.

    Political Context

    • Hawaii has a Democratic state government trifecta.
    • Gov. David Ige (D) has been a leader on climate issues and will likely support carbon pricing legislation, especially considering the Hawaii Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Commission, an executive-led task force, has recommended carbon pricing legislation
    • Democrats have overwhelming majorities in both the Senate (24-1) and House (47-4). Legislators have noted, however, that these figures can be misleading, as politicians often run as Democrats in order to increase their chances of election. 
    • Hawaii joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

    Past Legislation

    • Act 32 (2017)
      • Requires the State to expand strategies and mechanisms to reduce greenhouse gas emissions statewide in alignment with the principles and goals adopted in the Paris Agreement. 
      • Renames the Interagency Climate Adaptation Committee as the Hawaii Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Commission.
    • HB 623 (2015)
      • Increases renewable portfolio standards to 30 percent by December 31, 2020, 70 percent by December 31, 2040, and 100 percent by December 31, 2045. 
      • Requires the Public Utilities Commission to include the impact of renewable portfolio standards, if any, on the energy prices offered by renewable energy developers and the cost of fossil fuel volatility in its renewable portfolio standards study and report to the Legislature.
    • HB 1714: Hawaii Climate Adaptation Initiative Act (2014)
      • Establishes an interagency climate adaptation committee to develop a sea-level rise vulnerability and adaptation report addressing statewide climate impacts projected up to 2050.

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

      • Carbon Costs Coalition: Hawaii Sen. Mike Gabbard is part of a multistate alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

      Emission Reduction Target

      • By 2020: 1990 levels
      • By 2045: 100% below 2018 levels

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2020: 30% clean energy
      • By 2030: 40% clean energy
      • By 2040: 70% clean energy
      • By 2045: 100% clean energy

      Further Reading 

      Key Figures

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      20.7

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 2.18%
      🅴 Electric: 27.72%
      🆁 Residential: 0.45%
      🅸 Industrial: 6.71%
      🆃 Transportation: 47.91%
      🅾 Other: 15.01%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      17

      Climate Goals

      Hawaii updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2018 to reduce emissions

      By 2045:

      100%

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Under consideration on the legislative level

      Idaho

      Idaho has not made significant progress on climate action. Although Governor Brad Little (R) has declared that climate change is real and must be addressed, surprising many. Little said the state is making progress working with state and federal agencies, however, Idaho is far from developing a comprehensive climate action plan.

      In April 2019, the Boise City Council voted to adopt “Boise’s Energy Future” — a plan to consume 100% clean electricity by 2035. Boise is the first and only city in Idaho to adopt this goal. 

      Idaho Power plans to stop using coal energy and rely instead on hydroelectric, solar and wind resources. The utility, serving over 500,000 Idaho and Oregon residents, vows that 100 percent of energy will come from “clean” sources by 2045.

      More on Idaho

      2021 Legislation

      • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 4th and is scheduled to adjourn on April 2nd.

      Political Context

      • Idaho has a Republican state government trifecta. 
      • Republicans have a 58-12 majority in the Idaho House of Representatives, and a 28-7 majority in the State Senate. 
      • Republican governor, Brad Little, surprised many by acknowledging climate change in an address shortly after his inauguration.

      Constitutional Restraints

      • The Idaho state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target

      • N/A

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Idaho? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      19.9

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 7.32%
      🅴 Electric: 6.44%
      🆁 Residential: 9.23%
      🅸 Industrial: 19.45%
      🆃 Transportation: 57.57%
      🅾 Other: 0%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      19

      Climate Goals

      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Not yet considered

      Illinois

      Illinois shows a lot of promise when it comes to climate legislation. The Democratic governor, J.B. Pritzker, seems committed to climate solutions and has tweeted that he is “not going to be an energy bill written by the utility companies.” The state has a lot of momentum in renewable energy development since it passed the landmark Future Energy Jobs Act in 2016. There is a broad coalition supporting a new bill, the Clean Energy Jobs Act (CEJA), that will go even further in weaning the state off of fossil fuels while strengthening equity protections and holding utilities accountable.

      Nonetheless, Illinois faces some obstacles to climate legislation. The state consumes a large amount of coal and natural gas, and has a large coal mining industry. This is why the Illinois Clean Jobs Coalition has been so focused on including protections in their signature bill for coal miners who may need retraining during the transition to renewable energy.

      More on Illinois

      2021 Legislation

      • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 13th and is scheduled to adjourn on May 21, 2021.

      Political Context

      • Illinois has a Democratic state government trifecta.
      • In January 2019, Democratic Gov. J.B. Pritzker issued an executive order joining the U.S. Climate Alliance, and committing to the goals of the Paris Climate Accord. In his inaugural address, he pointedly said, “I believe in science” and spoke of the threat climate change poses. He hasn’t explicitly advocated for carbon pricing, however. 
      • Democrats have significant majorities in the Senate (40-19) and House (74-44). 
      • Illinois joined the US Climate Alliance in 2019.

      Emission Reduction Targets

      • By 2020: 1990 levels
      • By 2050: 60% below 1990 levels 

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2025: 25% clean energy

      Past Legislation

      • Clean Energy Jobs Act (CEJA) (2019)
        • Gives the Illinois Power Agency (IPA) the authority to oversee a Carbon-Free Capacity Market that would not be subject to the FERC regulation, thus cutting utility bills while promoting clean energy.
        • Levies fees on fossil fuel power plant emissions, as well as an excise tax on coal production, and uses the revenue to invest hundreds of millions of dollars in a just transition away from fossil fuels.
        • Directs the Illinois EPA to create a plan that will facilitate a complete elimination of power plant carbon emissions by 2030.
        • “Clean Jobs Workforce Hubs” are set up throughout Illinois that will assist with job training for underprivileged workers and former fossil fuel industry employees.
        • Creates a Displaced Energy Workers Bill of Rights that includes protections such as a requirement that workers affected by plant closures be provided with one year of healthcare by their employer.
          • Re-referred to Assignments in March 2019
      • Path to 100 Act (2020)  
        • Expands Illinois’ Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) to 40% by 2030 and requires that goal be met by new, in-state projects that create Illinois jobs
        • Drives procurement of an estimated 6,000 MW of new utility scale solar, 6,500 MW of new wind, 7,500 MW of new residential, commercial and community solar
        • Creates thousands of new, family-supporting clean energy jobs
        • Facilitates and amplifies successful programs encouraging a diverse & equitable workforce
          •  Re-referred to Rules Committee in June 2020
      • Future Energy Jobs Act (SB 2814) (2016)
        • Requires Commonwealth Edison and Ameren Illinois—the state’s two biggest electric utilities—to dramatically expand their energy efficiency programs and reduce electricity waste, lowering Illinois power bills by billions of dollars through 2030.
        • Expands the definition of “low income” beyond just people who qualify for state assistance, and it directs the utilities to engage with economically disadvantaged communities in designing and delivering new programs for customers most challenged to pay bills.
        • Fixes Illinois’ renewable energy laws, which will spark billions of dollars in new investment to develop wind and solar power in Illinois.
        • Creates a community solar program that will allow entire neighborhoods to enjoy the benefits of solar energy, whether they can install solar panels on their rooftops or not.
        • Job training and payment help:
        • Devotes $750 million to programs that provide training for new energy jobs and help consumers cut their utility bills.
        • Improves the state’s on-bill financing program, which helps people pay for efficiency upgrades through their utility bills.

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

      • N/A

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      220.9

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 6.84%
      🅴 Electric: 30.30%
      🆁 Residential: 11.59%
      🅸 Industrial: 18.74%
      🆃 Transportation: 32.52%
      🅾 Other: 0%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      25

      Climate Goals

      Illinois established its legally enforceable mandates in 2007 to reduce emissions

      By 2020:

      Return to 1990 levels

      By 2050:

      60%

      below 1990 levels

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Under consideration at the legislative level

      Indiana

      Indiana has struggled to gain momentum on climate action in the past. Power in the state is largely sourced from fossil fuels, mainly coal, making it difficult for the state to transition over to renewable energy for economic and ideological reasons.

      More on Indiana

      2021 Legislation

      • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 1st and is scheduled to adjourn on April 23rd.

      Political Context

      • Indiana has a Republican state government trifecta. 
      • Republicans have a 71 to 29 supermajority in the Indiana House of Representatives, and a 38 to 11 supermajority in the State Senate. 
      • Republican Gov. Eric Holcomb did not include environmental issues in his 2019 policy agenda, however, he has focused policy goals on the need to address Indiana’s water infrastructure.

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Indiana state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • Voluntary Clean Energy Portfolio Standard Program (IC 8-1-37) (2011)
        • Indiana’s utilities receive an incentive to increase the amount of renewable energy sources in their portfolio. It is a sliding scale that for program participants means the electricity they provide their customers  will include an average of  four percent from renewable sources between 2013 and 2019.  Beginning in 2019, that percentage jumps to seven percent and stays at that level until the end of 2024.  In 2025, the percentage goes up and stays at 10 percent.

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • N/A

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2025: 10% clean energy

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Indiana? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      197.0

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 3.06%
      🅴 Electric: 45.69%
      🆁 Residential: 4.61%
      🅸 Industrial: 24.47%
      🆃 Transportation: 22.17%
      🅾 Other: 0%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      42

      Climate Goals

      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Not yet considered

      Iowa

      Despite being a leader in wind energy, Iowa has struggled to make headway on climate policy. In 1983, Iowa became the first state in the U.S. to adopt a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) by enacting the Alternative Energy Production law. The Iowa Future Caucus, a bipartisan, bicameral group of four Iowa state legislators, has been exploring ways to grow the state’s renewable energy industry.

      More on Iowa

      2021–2022 Legislation

      • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 11th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on May 27th, 2022.

      Political Context

      • Republicans hold a state government trifecta in Iowa. 
      • Republicans have an 84-41 supermajority in the Kansas House of Representatives, and a 29-11 supermajority in the State Senate.
      • Governor Kim Reynolds (R) has no formal environmental policy, and has supported many of Trump’s decisions to decrease federal environmental regulations, specifically on coal production.

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Iowa state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation

      • Senate File 583 (2020)
        • Allows each utility to choose whether to offer net billing (similar to the current net metering) or an inflow-outflow billing method to all customers installing new generation.
        • Calls for a Value of Solar study to be created through a stakeholder process overseen by the Iowa Utilities Board and utilizing an independent third party consultant.

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • N/A

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 1990: 105 megawatts of clean energy production

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Iowa? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      137.5

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 2.80%
      🅴 Electric: 22.45%
      🆁 Residential: 3.63%
      🅸 Industrial: 22.26%
      🆃 Transportation: 14.84%
      🅾 Other: 34.01%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      39

      Climate Goals

      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Not yet considered

      Kansas

      Kansas has not made significant progress on climate action. Governor Laura Kelly (D) acknowledges climate change and has said her efforts will focus on working with the state’s Congressional delegation and other Western governors to find solutions. She has expressed support for more renewable energy use in the state, particularly wind energy. However, carbon pricing might be difficult to pass — Gov. Kelly has stated she will not raise Kansas’ taxes.

      More on Kansas

      2021-2022 Legislation

      • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 11th, 2021

      Political Context

      • Republicans have an 85-40 supermajority in the Kansas House of Representatives, and a 29-11 supermajority in the State Senate. 
      • Democratic Gov. Laura Kelly was a former executive director of the Kansas Parks and Recreation Association, and has helped expand the state park system as well as supported some other moderate environmental policies.

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Kansas state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation 

      • Substitute for SB 69 (2019)
        • Called for a study of Kansas electric rates because they have been among the highest in the Midwest in recent years.
        • London Economics released the report in early 2020. Their recommendations included drafting a state energy plan and requiring regular, long-term resource plans from utilities.
      • House Bill No. 2369 (2009)
        • Required the state’s investor-owned utilities and electric cooperatives to generate or purchase 20% of the affected utility’s peak demand from eligible renewable resources for each calendar year beginning in 2020.
      • S.B. 91 (2015) changed the renewable energy standard to a voluntary goal.

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • N/A

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • Starting in 2020: goal of 20% peak energy demand from renewable sources

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      64.7

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 4.11%
      🅴 Electric: 35.67%
      🆁 Residential: 6.67%
      🅸 Industrial: 22.85%
      🆃 Transportation: 30.70%
      🅾 Other: 0%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      34

      Climate Goals

      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Not yet considered

      Kentucky

      Kentucky is a state that struggles to make headway on climate progress due to a large reliance on coal for energy production and jobs. While there has not been a focus on carbon pricing legislation in Kentucky, there have been attempts to increase the state’s renewable energy production. In the 2020 legislative session, a bill (HB 213) that would establish renewable portfolio standard (RPS) targets in the state was introduced, with a goal of 2.25% clean energy by 2021 and 12.5% clean energy by 2029. The bill did not make it out of committee.

      More on Kentucky

      2021 Legislation

      • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 5th and is scheduled to adjourn on March 31st.

      Political Context

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Kentucky state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Past Legislation

      • Incentives for Energy Independence Act (2007)
        • established tax incentives for businesses to build or refurbish facilities with renewable energy sources
        • A renewable energy facility is defined by the law as a building that generates at least 50 kilowatts (kW) of electricity from solar energy or at least 1 megawatt (MW) of electricity from wind energy, biomass, landfill methane gas, or hydroelectric power. 
        • Companies must invest a minimum of $1 million in capital expenditures, including labor costs, before they can apply for a tax credit. Tax credits can include the following:
          • A tax credit for up to 100 percent of Kentucky income tax or the limited liability entity tax
          • A sales or use tax credit of up to 100 percent
          • A wage assessment credit of up to 4 percent for associated employees

      Emission Reduction Target

      • N/A

      Further Reading 

      • N/A

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Kentucky? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      126.6

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 2.29%
      🅴 Electric: 52.89%
      🆁 Residential: 2.64%
      🅸 Industrial: 14.24%
      🆃 Transportation: 27.94%
      🅾 Other: 0%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      44

      Climate Goals

      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Not yet considered

      Louisiana

      Louisiana is a state with a divided government and a climate that is dramatically impacted by climate change. Under the leadership of Governor John Bel Edwards (D), the state is preparing strategies to relocate vulnerable communities from sea level rise and flooding. In 2020, the Governor established the Climate Initiatives Task Forceto respond to climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 

      Coastal resilience has been a priority in Louisiana for several years. The state’s most recent Coastal Master Plan was released in 2017, with an update scheduled to arrive for 2023.

      More on Louisiana

      2021 Legislation

      • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on April 12th and is scheduled to adjourn on June 10th.

      Political Context

      • Republicans have a 61-39 majority in the Louisiana House of Representatives, and a 25-24 majority in the State Senate. 
      • Democratic Gov. John Bel Edwards has been very supportive of both the oil and gas industry in his 2020 reelection campaign, but has noted that sea level rise and flooding pose a major risk to Louisiana. He recently stated that “Louisiana will do its part to address climate change,” and called for the creation of a task force to formulate the next steps that the state will take to reduce emissions.
      • Governor Bel Edwards established the Climate Initiatives Task Force via Executive Order in August 2020. This Task Force was charged with creating an updated greenhouse gas inventory by the end of 2020 and an interim report recommending strategies by February 1, 2021. The Order also established emissions reductions goals of:
        • By 2025, reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28% of 2005 levels; 
        • By 2030, reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% of 2005 levels; and 
        • By 2050, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to net zero
      • Additionally, Governor Bel Edwards is very focused on coastal resilience. Along with the Climate Initiatives Task Force Executive Order, Bel Edwards established a Chief Resilience Officer through the passage of Executive Order NO. JBE 20-19. This position is meant to “further coordinate a cross-agency effort to build coastal resilience.

      Past Legislation

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Target 

      • By 2025, reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28% of 2005 levels; 
      • By 2030, reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% of 2005 levels; and 
      • By 2050, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to net zero.

      Further Reading 

      Key Figures

      • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Louisiana? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      251.6

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 1.00%
      🅴 Electric: 12.95%
      🆁 Residential: 0.87%
      🅸 Industrial: 65.32%
      🆃 Transportation: 19.87%
      🅾 Other: 0%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      47

      Climate Goals

      By 2025:

      26–28%

      below 2005 levels

      By 2030:

      40–50%

      below 2005 levels

      By 2050:

      net zero

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Not yet considered

      Maine

      For eight years, Gov. Paul Lepage (R) largely opposed strong climate action, but the election of Gov. Janet Mills (D) has spurred fresh excitement in 2019 for the climate movement. 

      On June 26, 2019, Maine passed “An Act To Promote Clean Energy Jobs and To Establish the Maine Climate Council” (LD 1679) with bipartisan support in the legislature. A Four-Year Plan for Climate Action was presented to the Governor by the Council on December 1, 2020. Gov. Mills also signed “An Act to Reform Maine’s Renewable Portfolio Standard” (LD 1494) to increase Maine’s RPS to 80% by 2030 and set a goal of 100% clean energy by 2050.

      More on Maine

      2021 Legislation

      • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on December 2nd, 2020 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 16th, 2021.

      Political Context

      • Maine has a Democratic state government trifecta.
      • Democratic Gov. Janet Mills has signaled climate action is a top priority for her administration. She joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in February 2019.
      • Democrats hold sizable majorities in both the Senate (22–13) and House (80–67–4).

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Maine state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

      Emission Reduction Targets

      • By 2020: 10% below 1990 levels
      • In long-term: 75-80% below 2003 levels 

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2030: 80% clean energy
      • By 2050: a goal of 100% clean energy

      Past Legislation 

      • An Act To Promote Clean Energy Jobs and To Establish the Maine Climate Council”: LD 1679 (2019)
        • The Council will be responsible for developing policies to reduce Maine’s carbon emissions by 45% by 2030 and by 80% by 2050. 
        • They will be called to submit a state Climate Action Plan by December 1, 2020. A draft was published on November 6th, 2020.
      • “An Act to Reform Maine’s Renewable Portfolio Standard” : LD 1494 (2019)
        • Increase Maine’s RPS to 80% by 2030 and set a goal of 100% clean energy by 2050.

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

      • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Maine remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
      • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Maine is a part of TCI, a regional collaboration that seeks to cap emissions from the transportation sector. The state hasn’t officially joined yet, however. 
      • Carbon Costs Coalition: Rep. Rykerson and Rep. Stanley Paige Ziegler are part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      17.8

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 10.11%
      🅴 Electric: 6.36%
      🆁 Residential: 17.84%
      🅸 Industrial: 10.82%
      🆃 Transportation: 44.88%
      🅾 Other: 9.99%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      16

      Climate Goals

      Maine updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

      By 2030:

      45%

      below 1990 levels

      By 2050:

      80%

      below 1990 levels

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Enacted on the regional level:

      Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

      Under consideration on the regional level:

      Transportation and Climate Initiative

      Maryland

      Both a prominent member of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and a driver in the Transportation and Climate Initiative development process, Maryland has shown promising progress on climate policy in recent years. In 2019, the Clean Energy Jobs Act passed, increasing Maryland’s renewable energy portfolio standard and expanded solar and wind energy targets.

      Under the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act (GGRA) passed in 2009, requiring the State to reduce GHG emissions 25 percent from a 2006 baseline by 2020. This Act was updated in 2015 to add a new benchmark requiring a 40 percent reduction of emissions from 2006 levels by 2030. In February, the state released its 2030 Greenhouse Gas Reduction Act Plan. which calls for a goal of 50% reductions by 2030, as recommended by the Maryland commission on Climate Change.

      According to a World Resources Institute report published in August 2020, Maryland leads the nation in the amount of emissions reductions (38%) and simultaneous growth of GDP (18%) in a 12 year period.

      More on Maryland

      2021 Legislation

      • The 2021 Legislative Session will convene on January 13th and is scheduled to adjourn on April 9th.
      • The Climate Crisis and Education Act (CCEA)
        • Sponsored by Senator Benjamin Kramer and Delegate David Fraser-Hidalgo
        • Sets new statewide, greenhouse gas-emission reduction goals: 60% by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2045
        • Establishes three separate funds for green infrastructure, household and employer benefits, and education in the state
        • Gradually increases the price of carbon pollution while including a no-pass through provision that protects consumers
        • Incentivizes renewable energy, creating jobs nearby, economic vitality, and huge investments in public goods.
        • Rebuild Maryland Coalition Website

      Political Context

      • Republican Gov. Hogan is one of 25 governors who has joined the bipartisan U.S. Climate Alliance. Hogan’s administration has their own renewable energy plan, called the Clean and Renewable Energy Standard (CARES), which will set Maryland on a path to 100% clean energy by 2040.
      • Democrats currently hold significant majorities in the House (98-42) and Senate (32-15).

      Emission Reduction Targets

      • By 2030: 40% below 2006 levels

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2030: 50% clean energy, including 14.5% solar and adding at least 1,200 MW of offshore wind
      • By 2040: a goal of 100% clean energy

      Past Legislation

      • Clean Energy Jobs Act (SB 516) 2019
        • Increases Maryland’s renewable portfolio standard to 50% by 2030 and sets a goal of 100% clean energy by 2040. 
        • Expands solar energy requirements and more than doubles the state’s offshore wind target.

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

       

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      82.8

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 7.52%
      🅴 Electric: 20.32%
      🆁 Residential: 8.44%
      🅸 Industrial: 16.06%
      🆃 Transportation: 42.35%
      🅾 Other: 5.31%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      4

      Climate Goals

      Maryland updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2016 to reduce emissions

      By 2020:

      25%

      below 2006 levels

      By 2030:

      40%

      below 2006 levels

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Enacted on the regional level:

      Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

      Under consideration on the regional level:

      Transportation and Climate Initiative

      Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

      Massachusetts

      Massachusetts is a regional and national leader on state climate policy, with policies like carbon pricing and new emissions limits being pioneers on multiple policy fronts. 

      Since 2013, Massachusetts legislators have been actively working to enact a state-wide fee on carbon pollution. In the last legislative session (2019-2020) Sen. Michael Barrett and Rep. Jennifer Benson emerged as key legislative champions in the fight for carbon pricing in Massachusetts, introducing carbon pricing bills in the House and Senate. The bills were well-received by state lawmakers, gaining large majorities in both chambers. 

      In January 2020 the Senate passed a series of bills, known as the Next Generation Climate Bills, which included a new net-zero emissions requirement for the state and an economy-wide carbon price. The House followed with its own climate bill in July 2020, modeled after Rep. Meschino’s 2050 Roadmap bill. The Next Generation Climate bill was passed by the Massachusetts legislature at the end of the session, but was vetoed by Governor Baker. The bill has since been refiled for the 2021 session and is expected to pass again with the expectation for an override if Governor Baker vetoes again.

      Meanwhile, the Governor continues to move forward with his own separate plans to update the state’s emissions limits. Through this process, the Governor hopes to fulfill a promise he made to get the state to net-zero emissions by 2050. The administration released their Massachusetts 2050 Decarbonization Roadmap in December 2020. A notable difference between the Roadmap and the Next Generation Climate bill is a 45% reduction target from 1990 emissions levels by 2030 in the Roadmap compared to a 50% reduction by 2030 in the bill. 

      In December 2020, Massachusetts joined Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Washington, DC to sign the Transportation and Climate Initiative, a regional cap-and-trade program for the transportation sector.

      More on Massachusetts

      2021-2022 Legislation

      • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session will convene on January 6th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on January 2nd, 2023.

      Political Context

      • Republican Gov. Charlie Baker has put most of his weight behind climate resiliency and adaptation measures to address climate change impacts. He has made no public statements on carbon pricing bills in past legislative sessions, and has been criticized for not taking aggressive enough action against climate change.
      • Democrats hold veto proof super-majorities in the House (128–31–1) and Senate (36–4)
      • Funding much needed transportation investments across the state has emerged as a key issue this legislative session. Carbon pricing is a strong candidate for transportation revenue.

       

      Emission Reduction Targets

      • By 2020: 25% below 1990 levels
      • By 2050: 80% below 1990 levels 

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2018: 16% clean energy
      • By 2030: 35% clean energy
      • By 2050: 80% clean energy

      Past Legislation

      • In 2019, in the House, the ‘2050 Roadmap Bill’ (H.832) was introduced on July 22nd by Representative Joan Meschino. 
        • The bill includes: 
          • Economy-wide net-zero: Makes the 2050 state-wide emissions limit stronger by replacing the current goal of 80% below 1990 levels to net-zero.
          • Intermediate emissions targets: Creates new intermediate emissions targets of 50% reduction by 2030, and 75% by 2040.
          • Authorizes carbon pricing: Specifically authorizes the Governor to enact carbon pricing, which opens the door for the current or future Governor to include a fee-and-rebate program. 
          • More robust reporting: Requires the Governor to develop an emissions reduction ‘roadmap’ plan every two and a half years, instead of every five. The plan is required to detail each source of GHGs and how it will be reduced to meet the 2050 net-zero mandate. Each roadmap must include proposed policies, regulations, and legislative recommendations. It also requires another annual report quantitatively assessing the effectiveness of regulations and programs at reducing GHG emissions.
          • Inclusion requirement for environmental justice, low income communities: In promulgating new regulations, the Governor is required to take into account the impact on low and moderate income and environmental justice populations.
        • Status: Passed through the House, and is now being reviewed in the Senate
      • In the Senate, “An Act Setting Next Generation Climate Policy” (S2500) was passed on January 30th, 2020.
        • The bill opts to let future gubernatorial administrations decide the specific carbon pricing mechanism to be used, but does mandate time limits by when certain sectors need to be covered: transportation by 2022, non-residential buildings by 2025, and residential buildings by 2030.
        • It was introduced and passed in conjunction with bills S2476 and S2478, which focus on energy efficiency standards, 100% electric MBTA buses by 2040, and state-wide vehicle electrification.
        • Status: Introduced January 23, 2020. Over 120 amendments were proposed by January 27, 2020. 33 amendments were approved and the overall bill was passed on January 30, 2020. Referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means on February 10, 2020.

      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

      • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Massachusetts remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
      • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Charlie Baker (R) remains committed to joining TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states. 
      • Carbon Costs Coalition: Massachusetts legislators are a part of a multistate alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      75.5

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 10.60%
      🅴 Electric: 13.60%
      🆁 Residential: 18.04%
      🅸 Industrial: 7.01%
      🆃 Transportation: 43.46%
      🅾 Other: 7.29%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      2

      Climate Goals

      Massachusetts established its legally enforceable mandates in 2008 to reduce emissions

      By 2020:

      25%

      below 1990 levels

      By 2050:

      85%

      below 1990 levels

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Enacted on the regional level:

      Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

      Under consideration on the regional level:

      Transportation and Climate Initiative

      Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

      Michigan

      Although Michigan has not been a historic leader on climate, Governor Gretchen Whitmer (D), elected in 2019, has made meaningful progress. Through a series of executive orders, Whitmer has established a Council on Climate Solutions tasked with formulating and implementing a Michigan Healthy Climate Plan by the end of 2021.

      Michigan is also one of the latest to join the United States Climate Alliance. Along with joining this alliance, Michigan also established a new Office of Climate and Energy that will work to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote sustainable energy solutions.

      More on Michigan

      2021-2022 Legislation

      • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 13th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on December 31, 2022.

      Political Context

      • Gov. Gretchen Whitmer (D) has made addressing climate change a priority for her administration, as seen by her bringing Michigan into the US Climate Alliance and by establishing a new office of climate and energy.
      • With the passage of Executive Directive 2019-12, Michigan joined the US Climate Alliance thereby committing to the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement.
      • With the passage of Executive Order No. 2020-182, Gov. Whitmer established the Council on Climate Solutions as an advisory body within the Department of Environment, Great Lakes, and Energy to formulate and oversee the implementation of the MI Healthy Climate Plan.
      • With the passage of Executive Directive No. 2020-10, a draft MI Healthy Climate Plan is due by September 1, 2021 with the final plan released no later than December 31, 2021.
      • Republicans currently hold majorities in both the House (58-52) and Senate (22-16).

      Constitutional Constraints

      • The Michigan state constitution requires 90% of revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes. 

      Past Legislation 

      • N/A

      Emission Reduction Targets 

      • 20% below 2005 levels by 2020
      • 80% reduction below 2005 levels by 2050

      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

      • By 2021: 15% clean energy
      • In 2018, a pro-renewable energy coalition, Clean Energy, Healthy Michigan, launched a ballot initiative to increase the state’s RPS to 30% renewable energy by 2030. In May 2018, the coalition reached an agreement with the state’s two largest utilities committing them to a 50% clean energy standard by 2030.

      Further Reading

      Key Figures

      • Gov. Gretchen Whitmer

      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

      168.1

      Emissions by Sector (%)

      🅲 Commercial: 6.89%
      🅴 Electric: 34.75%
      🆁 Residential: 12.79%
      🅸 Industrial: 13.15%
      🆃 Transportation: 49.5
      🅾 Other: 0%

      Emissions Intensity Ranking

      States from lowest to highest intensity

      29

      Climate Goals

      Michigan established its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

      By 2025:

      26–28%

      below 2005 levels

      Carbon Pricing Status

      Not yet considered

      Minnesota

      In recent years, Minnesota has made some progress on climate. On December 2nd 2019, Governor Tim Walz issued an executive order to establish a Climate Change Subcabinet, which will determine policies to comply with the state’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets — set by the Next Generation Energy Act of 2007and achieve 100% clean energy by 2050. There will be representation from fifteen state agencies and boards on the Subcabinet, chaired by the Commissioner of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. The order also created an Advisory Council on Climate Change to advise the Subcabinet on opportunities for climate action.

      In October 2020, the Minnesota House Climate Action Caucus released a Minnesota Climate Action Plan, which sets a goal of a 45% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.

      More on Minnesota

      2021–2022 Legislation

      • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 5th 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on May 21st, 2022.

      Political Context

      • Democratic Gov. Tim Walz supports expanding the renewable energy standard, reducing carbon emissions in all sectors, fighting for energy justice and advocating for tribal rights. He hasn’t explicitly advocated for carbon pricing, but has suggested that an increased gas tax would make a good revenue source. 
      • Republicans have a slight majority in the Senate (34–30–2), but Democrats have one in the House (75–59). 
      • Minnesota joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The Minnesota state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Emission Reduction Targets 

        • By 2025: 30% below 2005 levels
        • By 2050: 80% below 2005 levels 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2025: 26.5% clean energy for investor-owned utilities; 25% clean energy for all other utilities

        Past Legislation

        • N/A

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

        • N/A

        Further Reading 

        Key Figures

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        172.0

        Emissions by Sector (%)

        🅲 Commercial: 4.77%
        🅴 Electric: 22.88%
        🆁 Residential: 7.17%
        🅸 Industrial: 14.81%
        🆃 Transportation: 25.95%
        🅾 Other: 24.42%

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        26

        Climate Goals

        Minnesota established its legally enforceable mandates in 2007 to reduce emissions

        By 2025:

        30%

        below 2005 levels

        By 2050:

        80%

        below 2005 levels

        Carbon Pricing Status

        Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

        Mississippi

        With a Republican state government trifecta, Mississippi has not made progress on climate action.

        In June 2019, the Mississippi Public Service Commission created an energy planning framework for how electricity companies will procure power in the future. Commission Chairman Brandon Presley has pushed for long-term plans that incorporate all resources and increase energy efficiency. Clean energy advocates are hopeful that this move will expand renewables, energy efficiency, and storage, and guide the state toward cleaner energy production. Carbon pricing and other climate action has not been supported, however.

        More on Mississippi

        2021 Legislation

        • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 5th is scheduled to adjourn on April 2nd.

        Political Context

        • Republicans hold a state government trifecta in Mississippi. 
        • Republicans hold a 74-48 majority in the Mississippi House of Representatives, and a 31-18 majority in the State Senate.
        • Republican Gov. Tate Reeves, who entered office on January 14, 2020, has expressed doubts over the human contribution to climate change.

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The Mississippi state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target 

        • N/A

        Further Reading 

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Mississippi? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        71.9

        Emissions by Sector (%)

        🅲 Commercial: 2.38%
        🅴 Electric: 35.84%
        🆁 Residential: 2.41%
        🅸 Industrial: 17.82%
        🆃 Transportation: 41.55%
        🅾 Other: 0%

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        43

        Climate Goals

        No state-wide emissions reductions targets

        Carbon Pricing Status

        Not yet considered

        Missouri

        With a Republican state government trifecta, Missouri has not made progress on climate action.

        Due to high biomass energy production and large increases in wind and solar generation over the past few years, renewable sources provide over 40% of Missouri’s energy generation.  However, carbon pricing has not been introduced and Governor Mike Parson’s administration has not prioritized or supported policies to reduce emissions.

        More on Missouri

        2021 Legislation

        • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 6th and is scheduled to adjourn on May 31st.

        Political Context

        • There is a Republican state government trifecta in Missouri. 
        • Republicans have a 114-49 supermajority in the Missouri House of Representatives, and a 23-11 supermajority in the State House. 
        • Republican Gov. Mike Parson has not prioritized environmental issues in his administration.

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The Missouri state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emission Reduction Target 

        • N/A

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2021: 15% clean energy

        Further Reading 

        • N/A

        Key Figures

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        89.2

        Emissions by Sector (%)

        🅲 Commercial: 5.59%
        🅴 Electric: 30.58%
        🆁 Residential: 8.28%
        🅸 Industrial: 11.11%
        🆃 Transportation: 44.44%
        🅾 Other: 0%

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        24

        Climate Goals

        No state-wide emissions reductions targets

        Carbon Pricing Status

        Not yet considered

        Montana

        Despite being a conservative-leaning state, Montana has made some progress on climate with Democratic Governor Steve Bullock. Through his tenure, Bullock has entered Montana into the US Climate Alliance and created the Montana Climate Solutions Council. This Council released a Montana Climate Solutions Plan in August 2020. Montana also pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050, although this hasn’t been codified into law. 

        In the November 2020 election, Republican Greg Gianforte was elected as governor, creating a Republican state government trifecta in Montana. This shift may hinder Montana’s climate action moving forward.

        More on Montana

        2021 Legislation

        • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 4th and is scheduled to adjourn on April 28th.

        Political Context

        • Following the end of Democratic Governor Steve Bullock’s term in 2020, Republican Greg Gianforte won the governorship. Gianforte has been silent on climate policy other than to promote Montana’s coal production and pledging to “review, roll back and repeal” regulations he deems excessive or unnecessary.
        • With the election of Greg Gianforte, Montana has a Republican state government trifecta.
        • GovernorBullock has been a strong proponent of climate action, vetoing anti-environmental legislation and speaking frequently about the dangers of climate change. Gov. Bullock opted to join the U.S. Climate Alliance through the passage of Executive Order No. 8-2019
        • Gov. Bullock created and named members to the new Montana Climate Solutions Council. This Council released the Montana Climate Solutions Plan in August 2020. The recommendations specify that any carbon price must be “structured thoughtfully and with appropriate stakeholder input,” and must consider disproportionate impacts upon low-income communities. 
        • Republicans hold firm majorities in Montana’s State Senate (30–20) and House (59–41), which should make passage of legislation difficult.

        Constitutional Constraints

        • The Montana state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

        Past Legislation 

        • N/A

        Emissions Reduction Targets

        • By 2050: 80% below 1990 levels 

        Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

        • By 2015: 15% clean energy

        Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

        • N/A

        Further Reading

        Key Figures

        Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

        32.1

        Emissions by Sector (%)

        🅲 Commercial: 5.37%
        🅴 Electric: 46.38%
        🆁 Residential: 5.53%
        🅸 Industrial: 16.68%
        🆃 Transportation: 26.04%
        🅾 Other: 0%

        Emissions Intensity Ranking

        States from lowest to highest intensity

        45

        Climate Goals

        Montana established its legally enforceable mandate to reduce emissions

        By 2050:

        80%

        below 1990 levels

        Carbon Pricing Status

        Under consideration on the legislative level

        Nebraska

        With a Republican state government trifecta, Nebraska has not made progress on climate action. However, a group of University of Nebraska-Lincoln students are working to drive a public conversation around climate change and carbon pricing in a state that has historically been stagnant on climate action. The students, working with Citizens Climate Lobby and Our Climate, have strongly supported and lobbied for “A Bill for an Act Relating to Climate” (LB 283), which would provide the University of Nebraska with $250,000 to develop a comprehensive state climate action plan.

        More on Nebraska

        2021–2022 Legislation

        • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 6th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on May 31, 2022.

        Political Context

          • Nebraska has a Republican state government trifecta.
          • Nebraska has a unicameral legislative body, made up of 49 Senators.  Currently, Republicans hold an overwhelming majority in this legislature,  (32-17).
          • Governor Pete Ricketts (R) was a strong advocate for the Keystone Pipeline construction, and has historically been unsupportive of environmental initiatives.

          Past Legislation

          • LB283 – Provide for a climate change study (2019)
            • Provides the University of Nebraska with $250,000 to develop a comprehensive state climate action plan.

          Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

          • N/A

          Further Reading 

          Key Figures

          Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

          53.8

          Emissions by Sector (%)

          🅲 Commercial: 4.38%
          🅴 Electric: 44.17%
          🆁 Residential: 5.33%
          🅸 Industrial: 18.15%
          🆃 Transportation: 27.98%
          🅾 Other: 0%

          Emissions Intensity Ranking

          States from lowest to highest intensity

          37

          Climate Goals

          No state-wide emissions reductions targets

          Carbon Pricing Status

          Not yet considered

          Nevada

          Nevada has made significant progress on climate action. It was one of the first states to enact a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 1997. After similar legislation was vetoed by former Gov. Sandoval in 2017, Nevada passed SB358 in April 2019, which raises the state’s RPS to 50% clean energy by 2030 — one of the highest in the country — and sets a goal for 100% carbon-free energy by 2050. Gov. Sisolak signed SB 254 in June 2019, which established greenhouse gas reduction targets of 28% below 2005 levels by 2025 and 45% below by 2030. 

          On November 22, 2019, Gov. Sisolak issued an executive order that calls for state agencies to determine policies and regulations to successfully meet the state’s emissions reduction targets. The State Climate Strategy was released to the Governor on December 1, 2020 by the Climate Initiative.

          More on Nevada

          2021 Legislation

          • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on February 1st and is scheduled to adjourn on June 1st.

          Political Context

          • Nevada has a Democratic state government trifecta.
          • Democrats hold a 26-16 majority in the Nevada Assembly, and a 12-9 majority in the State Senate. 
          • Democratic Gov. Steve Sisolak joined the U.S. Climate Alliance, committing the state to meet Paris Agreement targets. In 2019, he signed legislation to drastically increase the state’s renewable energy requirements and establish emissions reduction targets.
          • In November 2020, voters amended the State’s Constitution to require electric utilities to acquire 50 percent of their electricity from renewable resources by 2030 through the passage of Question 6.

          Constitutional Challenges

          • The Nevada state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

          Past Legislation 

          • SB 254– An act relating to greenhouse gas emissions (2019)
            • Sets forth economy-wide GHG reduction goals of 28% below 2005 levels by 2025, 45% below 2005 levels by 2030, zero or near-zero by 2050.
            • Requires NDEP to produce a statewide inventory and projection of GHG emissions released in Nevada, including a “statement of policies” for consideration in addressing GHG emissions in Nevada
          • SB 358– An act relating to renewable energy (2019)
            • Established more stringent targets for Nevada’s RPS 
            • Made Nevada the fourth state in the U.S. to establish a 100% clean energy target. 
          • SB 300– An act relating to electric utilities (2019)
            • Allows utilities to adopt alternative rate-making structures such as performance-based ratemaking. 
          • SB 145– An act relating to energy (2017)
            • Incentivizes installation of energy storage and renewable energy systems 
          • Establishes the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Demonstration Program

          Emission Reduction Targets 

            • By 2025: 28% below 2005 levels
            • By 2030: 45% below 2005 levels

            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

            • By 2030: 50% clean energy
            • By 2050: 100% clean energy
            • By 2050: net-zero or near-zero emissions

            Further Reading 

            Key Figures

              Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

              53.5

              Emissions by Sector (%)

              🅲 Commercial: 4.67%
              🅴 Electric: 24.53%
              🆁 Residential: 4.86%
              🅸 Industrial: 26.12%
              🆃 Transportation: 32.74%
              🅾 Other: 7.08%

              Emissions Intensity Ranking

              States from lowest to highest intensity

              18

              Climate Goals

              Nevada established its legally enforceable mandate in 2019 to reduce emissions

              By 2025:

              28%

              below 2005 levels

              By 2030:

              45%

              below 2005 levels

              Carbon Pricing Status

              Not yet considered

              New Hampshire

              New Hampshire has historically lagged in climate action progress comparatively to other states in the Northeast region. Governor Chris Sununu (R) is skeptical of the existence of climate change and has vetoed several efforts to increase climate ambition. He is the only governor in the Northeast who hasn’t joined the US Climate Alliance and recently withdrew from the Transportation and Climate Initiative development process.

              In 2020, lawmakers formed an ad-hoc, non-partisan commission, the New Hampshire Emission Commission, tasked with developing a report that identifies a science-based emissions reduction goal for the state of New Hampshire to achieve by 2050. Its final report was released in December 2020 and recommended that lawmakers reintroduce SB 590, which would allow for a thorough and data-focused legislative consideration of emission goals centered around climate science and public health.

              More on New Hampshire

              2021 Legislation

              • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 6th and is scheduled to adjourn on June 30th.

              Political Context

              • As of 2021, New Hampshire will have a Republican state government trifecta.
              • Governor Chris Sununu (R), who has questioned if carbon is the leading cause for global warming and supported Trump’s decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, will likely oppose proposed carbon pricing legislation. 
              • Republicans flipped both the Senate and the House in the 2020 election, holding majorities in the Senate (14-10) and House (213-187).

              Constitutional Constraints

              • The New Hampshire state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

              Emission Reduction Targets

              • 20% below 1990 levels by 2025
              • 80% below 1990 levels by 2050

              Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

              • By 2025: 25.2% clean energy

              Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

              • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: New Hampshire remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states. 
              • Carbon Costs Coalition: New Hampshire legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

              Past Legislation

              • N/A

              Further Reading

              Key Figures 

              Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

              16.1

              Emissions by Sector (%)

              🅲 Commercial: 9.25%
              🅴 Electric: 12.92%
              🆁 Residential: 19.38%
              🅸 Industrial: 9.32%
              🆃 Transportation: 45.34%
              🅾 Other: 3.79%

              Emissions Intensity Ranking

              States from lowest to highest intensity

              8

              Climate Goals

              New Hampshire updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2009 to reduce emissions

              By 2025:

              20%

              below 1990 levels

              By 2050:

              80%

              below 1990 levels

              Carbon Pricing Status

              Enacted on the regional level:

              Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

              Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

              New Jersey

              New Jersey has made significant progress on climate in the past few years. Nearly eight years since Republican Gov. Chris Christie pulled New Jersey out of RGGI, the state rejoined the cap-and-trade initiative. Democratic Gov. Phil Murphy announced the return in January 2018, and in June 2019 the Department of Environmental Quality approved two rules that enable the state’s participation in RGGI starting in the first auction of 2020.

              At the same time, a Princeton student group, the New Jersey Student Climate Advocates, are actively working on developing a “carbon cashback” policy that would rebate revenue from a fee on carbon pollution back to households. The students have received a revised draft of their bill from the Office of Legislative Services and are working on revisions, stakeholder outreach, and coalition building. New Jersey has developed an Energy Master Plan that aims to get the state on a path to 100% clean energy by 2050.

              On October 29th, 2019, Murphy issued an executive order to establish a Statewide Climate Change Resilience Strategy. The order establishes a Climate and Flood Resilience Program within the Department of Environmental Protection, as well as an Interagency Council on Climate Resilience that will develop short- and long-term resilience and climate action plans.

              More on New Jersey

              2020–2021 Legislation 

              • The 2020-2021 Legislative Session began on January 14th, 2020 and will end on January 11th, 2022.

              Political Context

              • New Jersey has a Democratic state government trifecta.
              • Democratic Gov. Phil Murphy is undoubtedly more supportive of strong climate policy than his predecessor, Gov. Christie. 
              • Gov. Murphy has set ambitious clean energy goals for the state, requiring that more than 1.5 million New Jersey homes must be powered by offshore windmills by 2030, and 100% of New Jersey must be powered by clean energy by 2050. 
              • New Jersey joined the US Climate Alliance in 2018. 
              • Through the passage of Executive Order No. 23, Murphy directed the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to develop guidance on how all state departments can incorporate environmental justice considerations into their actions.
              • Murphy’s first year in office was praised by most environmental groups, although some worry he has focused too much on electricity and not enough on other emission-intensive sectors, like transportation. 
              • Democrats hold firm majorities in both the Senate (25-15) and House (52-28).
              • New Jersey is swimming in debt, so fiscal responsibility is imperative moving forward.

              Constitutional Constraints

              • The New Jersey state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

              Emission Reduction Targets 

              • By 2020: 1990 levels
              • By 2050: 80% below 2006 levels  

              Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

              • By 2050: 100% clean energy

              Past Legislation 

              • Senate Bill 232 (2020)
                • Places restrictions on corporations aiming to build or modify polluting facilities, such as power plants, waste sites, or manufacturing establishments, in “overburdened communities.”
                • Requires all polluting facilities that hope to develop a new project, expand an existing project, or renew state permits to undergo a new review through the Department of Environmental Protection
                • Establishes the definition of “overburdened communities” as neighborhoods that have 35% low-income residents, 40% non-White, or 40% with limited English-speaking capabilities
              • A 3723– An Act concerning clean energy (2018)
                • Requires 21 percent of the energy sold in the state be from Class I renewable energy sources by 2020; 35 percent by 2025 and 50 percent by 2030.
                • Reforms the state’s solar program by making near-term structural changes to ensure that the program is sustainable over the long term.
                • Codifies the Governor’s goal of 3,500 MW of offshore wind by 2030 and reinstates an expired program to provide tax credits for offshore wind manufacturing activities.
                • Establishes a community solar energy program to allow all New Jersey residents to benefit from solar energy.
                • Requires each utility to implement energy efficiency measures to reduce electricity usage by 2 percent and natural gas usage by 0.75 percent.
                • Codifies the Governor’s goal of achieving 600 MW of energy storage by 2021 and 2,000 MW by 2030.

              Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

              • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: New Jersey has rejoined as a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
              • Transportation and Climate Initiative: In December 2018, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states.

              Further Reading

              Key Figures

              Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

              105.1

              Emissions by Sector (%)

              🅲 Commercial: 7.32%
              🅴 Electric: 17.22%
              🆁 Residential: 14.46%
              🅸 Industrial: 8.47%
              🆃 Transportation: 38.63%
              🅾 Other: 13.89%

              Emissions Intensity Ranking

              States from lowest to highest intensity

              11

              Climate Goals

              New Jersey established its legally enforceable mandates in 2007 to reduce emissions

              By 2020:

              Return to 1990 levels

              By 2050:

              80%

              below 2006 levels

              Carbon Pricing Status

              Enacted on the regional level:

              Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

              Under consideration on the regional level:

              Transportation and Climate Initiative

              Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

              New Mexico

              New Mexico has made significant progress on climate action in recent years. On January 29, 2019, Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) signed an executive order committing New Mexico to critical climate action. As a result, the state joined the U.S. Climate Alliance and formed an Interagency Climate Change Task Force required to create an extensive climate strategy. This strategy must include a “comprehensive market-based program that sets emission limits across New Mexico,” among various other measures.  On November 21st, 2019, the Task Force released a report outlining emissions reduction policies, including implementing a cap-and-trade program. The most recent progress report was released in October 2020.

              More on New Mexico

              2021 Legislation 

              • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 19th and is scheduled to adjourn on March 20th.

              Political Context

              • New Mexico has a Democratic state government trifecta.
              • Democratic Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham campaigned on the promise of strong climate action, and signed a decisive executive order in her first month in office. 
              • Democrats hold sizable majorities in both the Senate (27-15) and House (44-25-1). 
              • In the 2020 Election, Amendment 1 passed restructuring the state’s public utility commission to shrink from five to three members who are all appointed by the governor. A rigorous appointment process ensures that members of the public utility commission are qualified and not tied to election funding.

              Constitutional Constraints

              • The New Mexico state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

              Emission Reduction Targets

              • By 2030: 45% below 2005 levels 

              Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

              Senate Bill 489: An Energy Transition Act, drastically increases New Mexico’s commitment to clean energy from 20% by 2020 to 100% by 2050, with intermittent goals. On January 29, 2020, the New Mexico Supreme Court ruled that ETA applies to plans for closing and recovering investments from the San Juan Generating Station;  the the Public Regulation Commission had been at odds with the Governor, legislators, and environmental community about whether the ETA applied to these plans since they preceded the bill. 

              • By 2030: 50% clean energy
              • By 2040: 80% clean energy
              • By 2045: 100% clean energy for investor-owned utilities
              • By 2050: 100% clean energy for cooperative utilities

              Past Legislation

              • In 2018, “A Study of Carbon Fee and Dividend Legislation” (SM 23) was passed by the Senate, mandating a legislative committee to study how a revenue-neutral carbon fee could be implemented in the state, and what impacts it would have on health, the economy, and greenhouse gas emissions. 

              Further Reading

              Key Figures

              Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

              66.0

              Emissions by Sector (%)

              🅲 Commercial: 2.64%
              🅴 Electric: 18.18%
              🆁 Residential: 3.42%
              🅸 Industrial: 42.43%
              🆃 Transportation: 22.22%
              🅾 Other: 11.11%

              Emissions Intensity Ranking

              States from lowest to highest intensity

              36

              Climate Goals

              New Mexico established its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

              By 2030:

              45%

              below 2005 levels

              Carbon Pricing Status

              Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

              New York

              New York has been a historical leader on climate action in both the Northeast and across the country. In June 2019, the New York legislature passed the Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act (CLCPA), which calls for the entire state’s economy to achieve an 85% reduction in emissions from 1990 levels by 2050, with offsets for the remaining 15% to achieve net zero emissions. The bill does not put a direct price on emissions, but legislators and advocates, led by the broad New York Renews coalition, are pushing for another statewide climate initiative—the Climate and Community Investment Act (CCIA)—which imposes a fee on carbon pollution.

              More on New York

              2021-2022 Legislation

              The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 6th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on January 1st, 2023. 

              • The Climate and Community Investment Act has been introduced in both the Assembly (A3876) and the Senate (S2992).
                • This bill sets a goal to reduce 100% of emissions by 2050 in the state, partly through putting a price on carbon
                • Fee system: The bill establishes The New York State Climate Action Council, which will determine the plan to reach the reduction target. This council will choose the type of carbon price that will go into effect in the state 
                • Revenue breakdown: The fee is projected to generate about $7 billion in revenue every year for the first ten years.
                  • 30% of revenue is dedicated to Climate Jobs and Infrastructure 
                  • 33% will go to the Climate Just Transition Fund, which targets investments for disadvantaged communities  
                  • 7% is dedicated to the Worker and Community Assurance Fund 
                  • 30% will go to the New York Energy Rebate Fund
                • Status: In Committee in both the Assembly and the Senate
              • In the Senate, Senator Parker introduced S03608, a bill identical to A00039 in the House.
                • Status: Referred to Budget and Revenue Committee as of February 11th. It is currently supported by the majority of the Senate, with 35 out of 63 Senators co-sponsoring the bill.

              Political Context

              • New York has a Democratic state government trifecta.
              • Governor Andrew Cuomo (D) has been a proponent of strong climate action. He’s called for the passage of a ‘Green New Deal’ that mandates the electric sector be 100% carbon-free by 2040, and the establishment of a council that evaluates policies to eliminate emissions across the state. Gov. Cuomo has also set a bold emission reduction target: 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. 
              • Democrats hold firm majorities in the Senate (41-22) and Assembly (107-42-1).
              • New York co-founded the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

              Emission Reduction Targets

              • By 2030: 40% below 1990 levels
              • By 2050: 85% below 1990 levels (with offsets accounting for the remaining 15%) 

              Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

              • By 2030: 70% clean energy
              • By 2040: 100% clean energy

              Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

              • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: New York is a committed member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
              • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Cuomo has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 
              • Carbon Costs Coalition: Several New York legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

              Past Legislation

              • SB S6599: Climate Leadership and Communities Protection Act (CLCPA) (2019)
                • Requires a reduction of GHG emissions 85% below 1990 levels by 2050 and an offset of the remaining 15%. 
                • States that 35% of the benefits of clean energy and energy efficiency funding must go to “disadvantaged” communities
                • Requires 70% of electricity to come from renewable sources by 2030.
                • Requires solar capacity to increase 250% by 2025 and requires enough offshore wind to power 6 million homes by 2035.
                • Creates a Just Transition Working Group to ensure that green jobs are good jobs, jobs are available to underrepresented groups, and workforce disruption is minimized.
                • Creates a Climate Justice Working Group charged with identifying “disadvantaged communities” for funding opportunities through the bill.

                Further Reading

                Key Figures

                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                179.1

                Emissions by Sector (%)

                🅲 Commercial: 11.74%
                🅴 Electric: 12.98%
                🆁 Residential: 17.80%
                🅸 Industrial: 8.26%
                🆃 Transportation: 44.94%
                🅾 Other: 4.29%

                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                States from lowest to highest intensity

                1

                Climate Goals

                New York updated its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

                By 2030:

                40%

                below 1990 levels

                By 2050:

                85%

                below 1990 levels
                (with offsets accounting for remaining 15% to net zero)

                Carbon Pricing Status

                Enacted on the regional level:

                Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                Under consideration on the regional level:

                Transportation and Climate Initiative

                Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                North Carolina

                North Carolina has not been a historic leader on climate; however, the election of Democratic Governor Roy Cooper in 2017 has increased the state’s climate ambition. In 2018, Governor Cooper issued Executive Order 80, which established the Climate Interagency Council charged with developing mitigation and adaptation programs. The order also implemented North Carolina’s current greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. As a result of this order, the North Carolina Department of Environmental Quality released a Clean Energy Plan in October 2019.

                Democrats hoped to flip the state legislature in the 2020 election, but did not succeed, which creates obstacles for passing climate legislation in the near future.

                More on North Carolina

                2021-2022 Legislation 

                • The 2021-2022 Legislative session convenes on January 13th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn June 30th, 2022.

                Political Context

                • Republicans currently hold the majority in both the House (65–55) and Senate (29–21).
                • Gov. Roy Cooper (D) is supportive of environmental goals, and issued Executive Order 80, which established the Climate Change Interagency Council and implemented the state’s greenhouse gas emissions-reduction target of 40% below 2005 levels by 2025. 
                • North Carolina joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

                Emission Reduction Targets

                • By 2025: Greater than 40% below 2005 levels 
                • By 2030: Electric power sector by 70% below 2005 levels, 
                • Carbon neutrality by 2050.

                Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                • By 2021: 12.5% clean energy

                Past Legislation 

                • HB 589: Competitive Energy Solutions for North Carolina (2017)
                  • Reduces the PURPA (Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978) contract lengths to a maximum of 10 years and the qualifying facility size to 1,000 kWs (1 MW) at first. Then, after reaching a threshold of 100 MWs of qualifying renewable energy under contract per public utility, the terms would be reduced to fixed five-year terms for qualifying facilities of 100 kWs.
                  • Requires Duke Energy and Duke Energy Progress to take bids for an aggregate 2,660 MWs of specifically new renewable energy over a 45-month period, plus an additional 3,500 MWs of renewable energy and any remnant not under contract.

                Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                • N/A

                Further Reading

                Key Figures

                • Gov. Roy Cooper 
                • Sen. Wiley Nickel

                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                160.9

                Emissions by Sector (%)

                🅲 Commercial: 3.64%
                🅴 Electric: 33.38%
                🆁 Residential: 3.84%
                🅸 Industrial: 9.23%
                🆃 Transportation: 32.62%
                🅾 Other: 17.30%

                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                States from lowest to highest intensity

                14

                Climate Goals

                North Carolina established legally enforceable mandates to reduce emissions

                By 2025:

                40%

                below 2005 levels

                By 2030:

                70%

                below 2005 levels

                By 2050:

                net zero

                Carbon Pricing Status

                Under consideration on the executive level

                North Dakota

                North Dakota has not made meaningful progress on climate action. It is among the top 10 coal and crude oil-producing states in the country, and Governor Doug Burgum (R) supports expanding the state’s energy production. In September, the US Department of Energy awarded almost $10 million to help fund an engineering study for Project Tundra, an initiative to build the world’s largest carbon capture and storage facility. Burgum said that this project, “gives North Dakota the opportunity to reduce emissions and boost energy production.”

                North Dakota has a voluntary RPS goal of producing 10% of all electricity from renewable sources. Carbon pricing and other forms of climate action have not been endorsed by members of the Legislature or Governor, however.

                More on North Dakota

                2021 Legislation

                • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 5th and is scheduled to adjourn on April 28th.

                Political Context

                • North Dakota has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                • Republicans have a 80-14 supermajority in the North Dakota House of Representatives, and a 40-7 supermajority in the State Senate. 
                • Republican Gov. Doug Burgum has not prioritized environmental issues, stating that “innovation—not regulation—solves oil & gas challenges.”

                Constitutional Constraints

                • The North Dakota state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                Past Legislation 

                • N/A

                Emission Reduction Target 

                • N/A

                Renewable Portfolio Standard Target

                • By 2015: goal of 10% clean energy

                Further Reading

                • N/A

                Key Figures

                • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in North Dakota? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                60.3

                Emissions by Sector (%)

                🅲 Commercial: 1.98%
                🅴 Electric: 50.18%
                🆁 Residential: 2.07%
                🅸 Industrial: 29.92%
                🆃 Transportation: 15.84%
                🅾 Other: 0%

                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                States from lowest to highest intensity

                49

                Climate Goals

                No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                Carbon Pricing Status

                Not yet considered

                Ohio

                Ohio has not made significant progress on climate action. Although Gov. Mike DeWine (R) said, “it’s important for the state of Ohio to be able to have a significant amount of energy that is created to be carbon free…” he has not prioritized policies to reduce emissions or promote renewable energy generation.

                In July 2019, the Ohio legislature passed a bill (HB 6) decreasing its RPS from 12.5% by 2026 to 8.5% by 2026, and completely ends the standard after 2026. Ohio is the first state in the past decade to reduce or repeal its RPS target since Kansas repealed its RPS in 2009. HB 6 also increases monthly utility bills by $0.85 to subsidize coal and nuclear energy generation. 

                In July 2020, the FBI revealed that the passage of HB 6 was a direct result of bribery and corruption in the state. FirstEnergy, an Akron-based electric utility with a deep-rooted history of climate denial, had bribed Speaker of the House Larry Householder and dozens of other legislators in the state to champion HB 6. After the FBI investigation, Householder and four others were arrested, and Governor Mike DeWine has since called for the law’s repeal.

                Despite the lack of state action, cities in Ohio have made some progress on their climate ambition. In the 2020 election, citizens in Columbus passed Issue 1, authorizing the city to establish Community Choice Aggregation. This shift will allow Columbus to meet its 100% renewable energy by 2022 goal, increase clean energy jobs, and provide competitive pricing with more local control over energy sources.

                More on Ohio

                2021-2022 Legislation

                • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convened on January 4th, 2021 and will adjourn on December 31st, 2022.

                Political Context

                • Ohio has a Republican state government trifecta.
                • Republicans hold a 64-35 majority in the Ohio House of Representatives, and a 24-9 majority in the State Senate.
                • Republican Gov. Mike DeWine opposed the Clean Power Plan and has not demonstrated environmental leadership in office.

                Constitutional Constraints

                • The Ohio state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                Past Legislation 

                • N/A

                Emission Reduction Target 

                • N/A

                Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                • By 2026: 8.5%

                Further Reading 

                Key Figures

                • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Ohio? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                216.3

                Emissions by Sector (%)

                🅲 Commercial: 5.78%
                🅴 Electric: 35.61%
                🆁 Residential: 8.82%
                🅸 Industrial: 19.50%
                🆃 Transportation: 30.28%
                🅾 Other: 0%

                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                States from lowest to highest intensity

                32

                Climate Goals

                No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                Carbon Pricing Status

                Enacted on the municipal level in:

                Athens

                Oklahoma

                Oklahoma has not made significant progress on climate action. It is the nation’s third-largest producer of wind power, and utilities are seeking to expand wind and solar energy — although coal and natural gas are the state’s primary fuels for electricity generation.

                State-level action to reduce emissions is unlikely in the near future, however, local communities are leading the transition to clean energy. Rural electric cooperatives have been expanding wind and solar energy production. In May 2018, Norman became the first and only Oklahoma municipality to commit to 100% clean energy. The city has a goal of 100% clean electricity by 2035 and across all sectors, including heat and transportation, by 2050.

                More on Oklahoma

                2021-2022 Legislation

                • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convened on February 1st, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on May 29th, 2022.

                Political Context

                • Oklahoma has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                • Republicans hold a 82-19 supermajority in the Oklahoma House of Representatives, and a 39-9 supermajority in the State Senate.
                • Republican Gov. Kevin Stitt has not prioritized environmental issues in his administration. 

                Past Legislation 

                • N/A

                Emission Reduction Target 

                • N/A

                Further Reading 

                • N/A

                Key Figures

                • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Oklahoma? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                100.9

                Emissions by Sector (%)

                🅲 Commercial: 3.27%
                🅴 Electric: 32.72%
                🆁 Residential: 4.23%
                🅸 Industrial: 26.49%
                🆃 Transportation: 33.29%
                🅾 Other: 0%

                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                States from lowest to highest intensity

                35

                Climate Goals

                No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                Carbon Pricing Status

                Not yet considered

                Oregon

                Oregon has made significant progress on climate action; however, Republicans have prevented critical bills from passing by fleeing the capital and refusing to vote. The highly-anticipated cap-and-invest Clean Energy Jobs bill (HB 2020) was reintroduced during the 2019 legislative session. The bill looked like it had a lot of momentum after passing the House, but it failed to receive a final vote in the Senate in the wake of the Republican walk-out

                In January 2020,, democratic lawmakers unveiled a revised version of this cap-and-invest bill (SB 1530). This new version includes measures to lessen the burden on rural, low-income households. Legislators hoped for this bill to make quick progress, but Republican representatives again fled the capitol and refused to vote. 

                In response, Gov. Brown secured emergency funding to create a carbon-cutting plan through Executive Order 20-04, which she announced in March 2020, that includes emissions reductions targets that decrease over time, which the Environmental Quality Commission has the power to enforce through a cap-and-trade program. The legislature allocated $5 million to the Governor to complete this plan, and the cap-and-trade program is expected to begin in 2022.

                More on Oregon

                2021 Legislation

                • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 19th and is scheduled to adjourn on June 30th.

                Political Context

                • Oregon has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                • Democratic Gov. Kate Brown has championed and prioritized climate policy. Through executive action, she was able to achieve strong climate ambition despite being unable to pass legislation in the state legislature. Democrats hold majorities in both the Senate (18-12) and House (38-22). Oregon joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

                Constitutional Constraints

                • The Oregon state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                Emission Reduction Targets

                • 45% below 1990 levels by 2035 
                • 80% below 1990 levels by 2050

                Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                • By 2040: 50% clean energy

                Past Legislation

                • SB 0098 (2019)
                  • Sets voluntary renewable natural gas (RNG) goals for natural gas utilities.
                • SB 1547: The Clean Electricity and Coal Transition Act (2016)
                  • Commits the state to eliminate its use of coal power by 2035.
                  • Doubles the amount of clean, renewable energy serving Oregonians to 50 percent by 2040.

                Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                • Carbon Costs Coalition: Oregon legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

                Further Reading

                Key Figures

                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                66.9

                Emissions by Sector (%)

                🅲 Commercial: 5.84%
                🅴 Electric: 27.95%
                🆁 Residential: 6.31%
                🅸 Industrial: 14.21%
                🆃 Transportation: 20.7
                🅾 Other: 8.44%

                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                States from lowest to highest intensity

                7

                Climate Goals

                Oregon established its legally enforceable mandates in 2007 to reduce emissions

                By 2035:

                45%

                below 1990 levels

                By 2050:

                80%

                below 1990 levels

                Carbon Pricing Status

                Enacted on the executive level
                Under consideration on the legislative level

                Pennsylvania

                Pennsylvania is a leading producer of fossil fuels and has historically lagged behind the other states in the Northeast on climate ambition. However, the election of Democratic Governor Tom Wolf in 2015 shifted Pennsylvania’s climate policy.

                In 2019, Governor Tom Wolf (D) issued an executive order instructing the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), making Pennsylvania the first major fossil-fuel producing state to join the program. In September, the state legislature passed bills (HB2025/SB950) requiring legislative approval before the state can join RGGI. Governor Wolf vetoed these bills, and the RGGI rulemaking process has continued through the DEP. Pennsylvania is expected to join the program starting in 2022. Pennsylvania has also been a part of the development process for the Transportation and Climate Initiative.

                More on Pennsylvania

                2021-2022 Legislation 

                • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 5, 2020 and is scheduled to adjourn on November 30, 2022.

                Political Context

                • For the first time, Democratic Governor Tom Wolf has set strong carbon reduction goals for the state. 
                • With the passage of Executive Order 2019-01, Governor Wolf set new emissions reduction goals: 26% reduction of emissions by 2025 from 2005 levels and 80% reduction of emissions by 2050 from 2005 levels. He also established GreenGov Council, which is charged with incorporating environmentally sustainable practices into Pennsylvania’s policy, planning, operations, procurement, and regulatory functions.Republicans hold slight majorities in Senate (28-21-1) and House (111-92), which would make enacting climate policy through legislative means difficult. 
                • Pennsylvania joined the US Climate Alliance in 2019.

                Constitutional Constraints

                • The Pennsylvania state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                Emission Reduction Targets

                • By 2025: 26% below 2005 levels
                • By 2050: 80% below 2005 levels 

                Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                • By 2020-2021: 18% clean energy

                Past Legislation

                • N/A

                Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

                • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Pennsylvania Gov. Tom Wolf (D) announced plans to join RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states.
                • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Wolf has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 

                Further Reading

                Key Figures

                Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                285.7

                Emissions by Sector (%)

                🅲 Commercial: 4.32%
                🅴 Electric: 25.62%
                🆁 Residential: 7.64%
                🅸 Industrial: 34.82%
                🆃 Transportation: 23.24%
                🅾 Other: 4.36%

                Emissions Intensity Ranking

                States from lowest to highest intensity

                28

                Climate Goals

                Pennsylvania established its legally enforceable mandates in 2019 to reduce emissions

                By 2025:

                26%

                below 2005 levels

                By 2050:

                80%

                below 2005 levels

                Carbon Pricing Status

                Enacted on the regional level:

                Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                Under consideration on the regional level:

                Transportation and Climate Initiative

                Under consideration on the executive and legislative levels

                Rhode Island

                Rhode Island, although small, has made meaningful progress on climate ambition. On January 17th, 2020, Governor Gina Raimondo (D) signed an executive order that mandates Rhode Island achieve 100% renewable electricity by 2030, the most ambitious 10-year energy target that currently exists in the U.S. This executive order will authorize a report conducted by the Office of Energy Resources to be finished by the end of 2020 to analyze the state’s economy and economic sector, and determine a comprehensive plan to reach the 2030 target. 

                Although Rhode Island has strong greenhouse gas emissions goals, the state legislature has rejected several attempts at codifying them into law and making them legally binding. A carbon pricing study signed into law two years ago (S108/H6305) finally received funding from settlement money the state received from the Volkswagen emissions scandal. 

                In December 2020, Rhode Island joined Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Washington, DC to sign the Transportation and Climate Initiative, a regional cap-and-trade program for the transportation sector.

                More on Rhode Island

                2021 Legislation

                • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 5th and is scheduled to adjourn on June 30th.

                Political Context

                • Rhode Island has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                • Democratic Gov. Gina Raimondo has supported carbon pricing in the past, but stated in October 2018 that the state is too small to adopt its own program.
                • With the passage of Executive Order 19-06, Governor Raimondo charged the Division of Public Utilities and Carriers and the Office of Energy Resources to lead a Heating Sector Transformation with the goal of reducing emissions from the heating sector.
                • Democrats have overwhelming majorities in the Senate (33-5) and House (66-8-1).
                • Rhode Island joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

                Emission Reduction Targets

                • By 2020: 10% below 1990 levels
                • By 2035: 45% below 1990 levels
                • By 2050: 80% below 1990 levels 

                Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                • By 2019: 14.5% clean energy
                • By 2035: 38.5% clean energy

                Past Legislation

                • Resilient Rhode Island Act (2014)
                  • Sets emissions reductions goals: 10% below 1990 levels by 2020, 45% by 2035, and 80% by 2050.
                  • established the Executive Climate Change Coordinating Council (EC4) charged with developing and tracking the implementation of a plan to achieve greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets.

                  Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Rhode Island remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
                  • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Gina Raimondo (D) has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 
                  • Carbon Costs Coalition: Rhode Island legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

                  Further Reading

                  Key Figures

                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                  12.6

                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                  🅲 Commercial: 6.82%
                  🅴 Electric: 27.19%
                  🆁 Residential: 13.98%
                  🅸 Industrial: 16.57%
                  🆃 Transportation: 33.53%
                  🅾 Other: 1.90%

                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                  10

                  Climate Goals

                  Rhode Island established its legally enforceable mandates in 2014 to reduce emissions

                  By 2020:

                  10%

                  below 1990 levels

                  By 2035:

                  45%

                  below 1990 levels

                  By 2050:

                  80%

                  below 1990 levels

                  Carbon Pricing Status

                  Enacted on the regional level:

                  Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                  Under consideration on the regional level:

                  Transportation and Climate Initiative

                  Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                  South Carolina

                  South Carolina, in general, has not been a leader on climate policy. However, in May 2019, South Carolina passed the Energy Freedom Act, which encourages a more resilient, clean energy future by supporting solar affordability and battery storage technology. The legislation changes previous policies and programs that had restricted renewable energy growth and creates pathways to increase renewable energy production in the state.

                  Due to severe climate-induced flooding in South Carolina, there has been political will to take action on climate resilience to flooding. In 2020, the state legislature passed The Disaster Relief and Resilience Act, which created an Office of Resilience, and passed S217, which allowed municipalities to use hospitality tax funding towards sea-level rise projects.

                  More on South Carolina

                  2021-2022 Legislation

                  • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 12th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on June 15th, 2022.

                  Political Context

                  • South Carolina has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                  • Republicans hold an 81-43 majority in the South Carolina House of Representatives, and a 30-16 majority in the State Senate.
                  • Republican Gov. Henry McMaster supported President Trump’s decision to abandon the Paris Agreement.

                  Past Legislation 

                  • S217 (2020)
                    • Allows local leaders to access state accommodations, local hospitality and local accommodations tax dollars for public works projects to mitigate or eliminate effects of sea-level rise.
                  • S259: The Disaster Relief and Resilience Act (2020)
                    • Creates an Office of Resilience to oversee a statewide plan addressing flood risks and mitigation efforts.
                    • Establishes a fund for local governments to voluntarily buy out properties that have flooded repeatedly and remove them from floodplains.
                  • H3659: Energy Freedom Act (2019)
                    • Extends current customer “net metering” energy credit system until June 1, 2021.
                    • Utilities will propose programs for individuals to participate in community-based solar projects and get credit for the output on their bills.
                    • Requires utilities to file a voluntary renewable program for commercial and industrial customers that will be reviewed and approved by PSC.
                    • Improves existing Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) process by requiring utility to show in the IRP a cost analysis of several alternative futures, including futures with higher levels of renewable energy and energy efficiency
                    • Establishes an updated process for interconnection of large-scale solar to the grid.

                  Emission Reduction Target 

                  • N/A

                  Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                  • By 2021: 2% clean energy

                  Further Reading 

                  Key Figures

                  • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in South Carolina? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                  77.4

                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                  🅲 Commercial: 2.99
                  🅴 Electric: 37.18
                  🆁 Residential: 2.64
                  🅸 Industrial: 12.44
                  🆃 Transportation: 44.74
                  🅾 Other: 0%

                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                  27

                  Climate Goals

                  No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                  Carbon Pricing Status

                  Not yet considered

                  South Dakota

                  South Dakota has not made significant progress on climate policy. It has been rapidly expanding wind energy throughout the state after lawmakers passed a measure to reduce the state tax on wind production by about one-third per kilowatt of energy produced. Between June 2018 and July 2019, eight major wind energy projects were approved, projected to bring 700 more wind turbines and an investment of $2.6 billion in the state by 2020. Another two projects currently under review would bring that up to almost 900 total new turbines and an investment of $3.3 billion by energy companies.

                  Hydro power has also been increasingly expanded throughout South Dakota, and in 2019, renewable energy accounted for approximately 68% of South Dakota’s electricity source. Hydroelectric power made up about 45% of total energy and wind approximately 24%.

                  More on South Dakota

                  2021 Legislation

                  • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 12th and is scheduled to adjourn on March 29th.

                  Political Context

                  • South Dakota has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                  • Republicans hold a 59-11 supermajority in the South Dakota House of Representatives, and a 30-5 supermajority in the State Senate. 
                  • Republican Gov. Kristi Noem supported the Keystone XL pipeline and offshore drilling projects, and opposes ending tax breaks for oil companies. 

                  Constitutional Constraints

                  • The South Dakota state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                  Past Legislation 

                  • N/A

                  Emission Reduction Target 

                  • N/A

                  Further Reading 

                  • N/A

                  Key Figures

                  • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in South Dakota? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                  16.3

                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                  🅲 Commercial: 5.39%
                  🅴 Electric: 17.60%
                  🆁 Residential: 7.36%
                  🅸 Industrial: 26.51%
                  🆃 Transportation: 43.13%
                  🅾 Other: 0%

                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                  31

                  Climate Goals

                  No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                  Carbon Pricing Status

                  Not yet considered

                  Tennessee

                  Tennessee has not made meaningful progress on climate action. However, in the absence of state policy, cities have started to lead the way. The City of Knoxville’s Energy and Sustainability Initiative has demonstrated leadership by establishing emission reduction targets; the initiative aims to reduce emissions within city operations and the community at large by 20% by 2020, 50% by 2030 and 80% by 2050 relative to 2005 levels. In 2019, the city of Nashville passed a suite of renewable energy policies that established a target of 100% renewable energy for municipal buildings by 2041, established a fleet schedule for low- or zero-emissions vehicles owned by the Metropolitan Government of Nashville, and required LEED Platinum certification for new construction of city owned buildings. 

                  In 2017, the Tennessee Energy Policy Council was established (HB 0438/SB 1250) to create a comprehensive plan for the state’s energy production. The Council has not focused on expanding renewable production or reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants.

                  More on Tennessee

                  2021-2022 Legislation

                  • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 12th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on May 7th, 2022.

                  Political Context

                  • Tennessee has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                  • Republicans hold a 73-26 supermajority in the Tennessee House of Representatives, and a 27-6 supermajority in the State Senate. 
                  • Republican Gov. Bill Lee has expressed uncertainty about the causes of climate change. 

                  Past Legislation 

                  • N/A

                  Emission Reduction Target 

                  • N/A

                  Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                  • N/A

                  Further Reading 

                  Key Figures

                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                  99.5

                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                  🅲 Commercial: 4.34%
                  🅴 Electric: 26.21%
                  🆁 Residential: 4.66%
                  🅸 Industrial: 18.31%
                  🆃 Transportation: 46.48%
                  🅾 Other: 0%

                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                  23

                  Climate Goals

                  No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                  Carbon Pricing Status

                  Under consideration on the legislative level

                  Texas

                  Texas has not made significant progress on climate action. It is far and away the highest carbon-emitting state in the U.S. The state produced 657 million tons of carbon in 2016, 5% higher than the year before and nearly twice as much as California, the second-biggest polluter. It’s also one of the most at-risk states, prone to extreme heat, drought and wildfires. Climate legislation has not been successful in the state legislature thus far, although disaster recovery and resilience measures have made some progress without the mention of climate change, particularly after the wrath of Hurricane Harvey.  

                  More on Texas

                  2021 Legislation 

                  • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 12th and is scheduled to adjourn on May 28th.

                  Political Context

                  • Texas has a Republican state government trifecta.
                  • Republican Gov. Greg Abbott has regularly opposed strong climate policy. He supported the appointment of Scott Pruitt to head the EPA, and maintains that though the Earth’s climate is changing, it’s unclear if humans play a significant role. 
                  • Significant Republican majorities in both the Senate (19-12) and House (83-67) make advancing strong climate policy difficult.

                  Constitutional Constraints

                  • The Texas state constitution requires 75% of revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes. The remaining 25% must go towards public education funding.

                  Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                  • By 2015: 5,880 MW clean energy
                  • By 2025: 10,000 MW clean energy

                  Past Legislation 

                  • Senate Bill 7 (2019)
                    • Drew $1.7 billion from the state’s “rainy day fund” to help pay for flood control projects and repairs across the state.

                  Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                  • N/A

                  Further Reading

                  Key Figures

                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                  875.1

                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                  🅲 Commercial: 1.73%
                  🅴 Electric: 23.09%
                  🆁 Residential: 1.56%
                  🅸 Industrial: 44.84%
                  🆃 Transportation: 28.79%
                  🅾 Other: 0%

                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                  40

                  Climate Goals

                  No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                  Carbon Pricing Status

                  Under consideration on the legislative level

                  Utah

                  For a state with a Republican government trifecta, Utah has shown promise with climate policy. In 2020, legislators introduced the “Utah Roadmap,” which plans to be one of the most aggressive climate solutions in a Republican-led state. This bill proposes solutions to reduce carbon emissions 25 percent below 2005 levels by 2025 and 80 percent by 2050 by focusing on decreasing air pollution. This will involve dramatically reducing coal production throughout the state and increasing electric vehicle infrastructure. 

                  In 2019, Utah lawmakers once again filed a “tax swap” carbon pricing bill that imposes a fee on pollution but in return reduces other state taxes in order to lessen the burden on consumers. The same legislation was filed in 2018 and received some bipartisan support, but the Republican co-sponsors for that bill have retired. After the bill failed in the legislature two years in a row, a group of citizens coming together under the name Clean the Darn Air launched a campaign to put carbon pricing on the ballot in 2020. The group was unable to meet the signature threshold to earn a place on the 2020 ballot. The group is now shifting its focus to future years, and there are plans to refile the petition in 2020 to make it on the ballot in 2022 or 2024.

                  More on Utah

                  2021 Legislation

                  The 2021 Legislative Session convenes January 19th and is scheduled to adjourn on March 5th.

                  • Rep. Joel Brisco introduced the Utah Roadmap Resolution (HCR011) to support the recommendations made in the Utah Roadmap. 
                    • Status: Currently in the House Rules Committee.

                  Political Context

                  • Newly elected in the 2020 election, Republican Gov. Spencer Cox has acknowledged human-induced climate change and has recognized that climate change played a role in Utah’s wildfires.
                  • Republican Gov. Gary Herbert has expressed stiff opposition to carbon pricing, though he stated he is “willing to have the discussion” on the Clean the Darn Air initiative. 
                  • Republicans hold firm majorities in both the Senate (23-6) and House (59-16). 
                  • Utah has a Republican state government trifecta.
                  • Utah’s budget this year includes $200,000 for a study on how climate change will impact the state.

                  Constitutional Constraints

                  • The Utah state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                  Renewable Portfolio Standard Target

                  • By 2025: 20% clean electricity

                  Past Legislation

                  • N/A

                  Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                  • Carbon Costs Coalition: Utah is a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

                  Further Reading

                  Key Figures

                  Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                  62.1

                  Emissions by Sector (%)

                  🅲 Commercial: 4.50%
                  🅴 Electric: 46.01%
                  🆁 Residential: 6.32%
                  🅸 Industrial: 12.77%
                  🆃 Transportation: 30.39%
                  🅾 Other: 0%

                  Emissions Intensity Ranking

                  States from lowest to highest intensity

                  33

                  Climate Goals

                  No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                  Carbon Pricing Status

                  Under consideration on the legislative level

                  Vermont

                  Vermont has made some progress on climate action, although it lags behind some of its neighbors in the Northeast. Republican Governor Phil Scott has not been supportive of climate action in the past. In 2020, the Vermont Global Warming Solutions Act passed in the legislature, cementing strong emissions reductions goals and creating a 22-member council to come up with a pollution reduction plan. This Act was vetoed by Governor Scott, but overridden by the legislature shortly after. 

                  Cities have also shown some progress in Vermont. On October 11th, 2019, Burlington Mayor Miro Weinberger proposed a state-wide carbon pollution fee starting at $30 per ton on heating and transportation fuels. The fee and rebate policy would cut statewide emissions by 37% by 2040 and boost economic growth. Burlington will also begin to use an internal carbon price to evaluate major purchasing decisions.

                  More on Vermont

                  2021-2022 Legislation 

                  • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 6th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on May 28th, 2022.

                  Political Context

                  Emission Reduction Targets

                  • By 2030: 40% below 1990 levels
                  • By 2050: 80-90% below 1990 levels 

                  Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                  • By 2017: 55% clean energy
                  • By 2032: 75% clean energy

                  Past Legislation

                  • H.688: Vermont Global Warming Solutions Act (2020)
                    • Requires the state to reduce greenhouse gas pollution to 26% below 2005 levels by 2025, 40% below 1990 levels by 2030, and 80% below by 2050. 
                    • Creates a 22-member council, comprising state government officials, citizen experts and others, to come up with a pollution reduction plan by Dec. 1, 2021.

                      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                      • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative: Vermont remains a member of RGGI, a regional cap-and-trade program on electric sector emissions between 10 states. 
                      • Transportation and Climate Initiative: Gov. Phil Scott (R) has announced plans to join TCI, a regional collaboration that would cap emissions from the transportation sector. 
                      • Carbon Costs Coalition: Six Vermont legislators (Rep. Curt McCormack, Rep. David Deen, Rep. Mary Sullivan, Rep. Mike Yantachka, Rep. Copeland-Hanzas, Sen. Pearson) are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on pricing carbon. 

                      Further Reading 

                      Key Figures

                      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                      10.4

                      Emissions by Sector (%)

                      🅲 Commercial: 8.07%
                      🅴 Electric: 7.82%
                      🆁 Residential: 13.87%
                      🅸 Industrial: 16.42%
                      🆃 Transportation: 40.65%
                      🅾 Other: 13.17%

                      Emissions Intensity Ranking

                      States from lowest to highest intensity

                      9

                      Climate Goals

                      Vermont established its legally enforceable mandates in 2016 to reduce emissions

                      By 2030:

                      40%

                      below 1990 levels

                      By 2050:

                      80–95%

                      below 1990 levels

                      Carbon Pricing Status

                      Enacted on the regional level:

                      Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                      Under consideration on the regional level:

                      Transportation and Climate Initiative

                      Under consideration on the legislative and executive levels

                      Virginia

                      Virginia has made significant climate action in recent years. Current Gov. Ralph Northam (D) campaigned on the promise of strong climate action, pledging to make Virginia the first Southern state to participate in RGGI. But Republicans, previously holding a three-seat majority in the General Assembly, fiercely opposed the state’s entry into the cap-and-trade program in 2019. In a disappointing turn of events, Northam signed a budget that included a GOP provision prohibiting state dollars from being spent to “support membership or participation” in RGGI, effectively barring program administration.

                      Despite the GOP majority, Gov. Northam continued to use his executive power to push climate action in Virginia. On September 17th 2019, Gov. Northam issued an executive order to expand access to renewable energy and set more ambitious targets for clean electricity generation. Northam set a goal of 30% renewable electricity by 2030 and 100% carbon-free electricity by 2050, with more ambitious targets for the Commonwealth’s agencies and executive branch institutions.

                      In the 2019 Virginia state election, Democrats flipped both houses of the Virginia legislature for the first time in 26 years. With Democrats holding the Governor’s Office, Senate, and the House, state legislators began focusing on climate efforts. In the 2020 session in Virginia, before the COVID-19 epidemic swept the nation, the Virginia General Assembly was able to push through a comprehensive climate bill in March, the Virginia Clean Economy Act. 

                      In 2020, The Virginia Clean Economy Act (SB 94/HB 1526) passed which allows Virginia to join the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and outlines a plan for Virginia to become carbon neutral by 2050 through reducing energy waste through efficiency and increasing access to renewable energy. Virginia is scheduled to join RGGI in 2021.

                      More on Virginia

                      2021 Legislation

                      • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 13th and is scheduled to adjourn on February 13th.

                      Political Context

                      • For the first time since 1994, Democrats gained a majority in both the House (54-43) and the Senate (21-19) in the November 2019 general election.
                      • Gov. Ralph Northam (D) has acted in favor of climate action by supporting Pennsylvania’s entry into the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, environmental justice initiatives, and coastal resiliency.
                      • With the passage of Executive Order 24 in 2018, Governor Northam directed state agencies to develop mitigation strategies to reduce the near and long term impacts of natural hazards and extreme weather. The order resulted in the publication of the Virginia Coastal Resilience Master Planning Framework in October 2020. 
                      • Virginia presently has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                      • Virginia joined the US Climate Alliance in 2017.

                      Past Legislation

                      • On January 8th, 2020, House Bill 1526 was introduced by Del. Sullivan called the Clean Economy Act, which would, among other things, allow Virginia to join RGGI.
                        • Fee system: Aligned with the RGGI system
                        • Revenue Breakdown: 
                          • 45% of the revenue shall be credited to the account established pursuant to funds for the purpose of assisting localities and their residents affected by recurrent flooding, sea level rise, and flooding from severe weather events.
                          • 50% will go towards a fund supporting low-income energy efficiency programs.
                          • 3% will be used for administrative costs for the auction.
                          • 2% will be used for administrative costs to administer the low-income energy efficiency programs. 
                        • Status: Passed through the House on February 11th. 
                        • In the Senate, Senate Bill 94, a similar version of the House bill, passed on January 24th. 
                      • HB 1042 (2020)
                        • Establishes the Virginia Council on Environmental Justice, consisting of 27 members, as a permanent body to advise the Governor and provide recommendations intended to protect vulnerable communities from disproportionate impacts of pollution and provide such communities meaningful involvement in the decision-making process.
                        • The Council released its most recent annual Environmental Justice Report in 2020.
                      • SB 966: The Grid Transformation and Security Act (2018)
                        • Enables Virginia’s electric utilities to modernize the grid, emphasizing investment in clean energy technology.
                        • Increases the amount of utility-scale solar from 500 MW to 5,000 MW over ten years, with 3,000 MW coming in the first four years.

                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                      • By 2030: 30% clean electricity
                      • By 2050: 100% clean electricity

                      Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                      Further Reading

                      Key Figures

                      Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                      150.9

                      Emissions by Sector (%)

                      🅲 Commercial: 4.59%
                      🅴 Electric: 29.82%
                      🆁 Residential: 4.56%
                      🅸 Industrial: 18.49%
                      🆃 Transportation: 34.34%
                      🅾 Other: 8.21%

                      Emissions Intensity Ranking

                      States from lowest to highest intensity

                      12

                      Climate Goals

                      No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                      Carbon Pricing Status

                      Enacted on the regional level:

                      Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative

                      Under consideration on the regional level:

                      Transportation and Climate Initiative

                      Under consideration on the executive level

                      Washington

                      Washington is a clear climate leader for the entire country. Democratic Governor Jay Inslee has spearheaded climate ambition in the state since his election in 2013. Washington has some of the most ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction. In 2019, Washington became the 5th state or territory to commit to 100% clean electricity. Specifically, HB 1211 committed Washington to 100% carbon neutral electricity by 2030 and 100% clean energy by 2045.

                      Also in 2019, Washington passed the Clean Buildings Act passing the most ambitious green building standard in the country. This act requires commercial buildings to achieve efficiency standards starting in 2026 and creates a new statewide incentive program to help underwrite early retrofits. 

                      Most recently, in 2020 Washington passed HB 2311 enhancing the state’s greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets to better reflect current science. The new targets are: 45 percent below 1990 levels by 2030, 70 percent below 1990 levels by 2040, and 95 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.

                      More on Washington

                      2021-2022 Legislation

                      • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 11th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on April 20th, 2022.

                      Political Context

                      • Washington has a Democratic state government trifecta.
                      • Gov. Jay Inslee has made a name for himself as a long-time advocate of climate policy. In his 2020 presidential run, Inslee kept climate change a central part of his platform. Inslee is focusing on a clean fuel standard as the best available weapon against climate change. Democrats currently hold majorities in both the House (57-41) and Senate (29-20).

                      Emission Reduction Targets 

                      • By 2030: 45% below 1990 levels
                      • By 2040: 70% below 1990 levels
                      • By 2050: 95% below 1990 levels

                      Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                      • By 2030: 100% clean energy

                      Past Legislation

                      • “An Act Relating to amending state greenhouse gas emission limits…” (HB 2311/SB 6272) was signed by the Governor in March 2020.
                        • Modifies state greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets to 
                          • 45 percent below 1990 levels by 2030 
                          • 70 percent below 1990 levels by 2040
                          • 95 percent below 1990 levels by 2050.
                        • Establishes a net zero greenhouse gas emissions target for 2050 for state government and for the state as a whole.
                        • “An Act Relating to supporting Washington’s clean energy economy…” (SB 5116/HB 1211) (2019)
                          • Requires all electric utilities to eliminate from electric rates all costs associated with delivering electricity generated from coal-fired power plants by December 31, 2025. 
                          • Requires each electric utility to make all retail sales of electricity greenhouse gas neutral by January 1, 2030. 
                          • Requires each electric utility to meet 100 percent of its retail electric load using non-emitting and renewable resources by January 1, 2045.
                        • Clean Buildings Act (HB 1257) (2019)
                          • Requires the Department of Commerce to adopt rules for commercial buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet setting energy intensity targets (measured by energy consumption per square foot of commercial space) by building type.
                          • Requires energy management plans for covered buildings that include operations and maintenance improvements, energy efficiency audits, and investment in energy efficiency measures designed to meet the energy intensity targets. 

                            Other Carbon Pricing Commitments

                            • Carbon Costs Coalition: Washington legislators are a part of a multi-state alliance between legislators focused on reducing and pricing carbon. 

                            Further Reading

                            Key Figures

                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                            109.2

                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                            🅲 Commercial: 4.79%
                            🅴 Electric: 16.12%
                            🆁 Residential: 5.69%
                            🅸 Industrial: 20.87%
                            🆃 Transportation: 42.55%
                            🅾 Other: 9.98%

                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                            6

                            Climate Goals

                            Washington established its legally enforceable mandates in 2008 to reduce emissions

                            By 2030:

                            45%

                            below 1990 levels

                            By 2040:

                            70%

                            below 1990 levels

                            By 2050:

                            95%

                            below 1990 levels

                            Carbon Pricing Status

                            Under consideration on the executive and legislative levels

                            West Virginia

                            West Virginia has not made significant progress on climate action. Coal-fired power plants account for over 90% of West Virginia’s net electricity generation, and the state does not have a statewide energy plan or Renewable Portfolio Standard that would incentivize clean energy production. Carbon pricing legislation and other climate policies have a long way to go before being introduced in the state.

                            More on West Virginia

                            2021 Legislation

                            • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on February 10th and is scheduled to adjourn on April 10th.

                            Political Context

                            • West Virginia has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                            • Republicans have a 76-24 majority in the West Virginia House of Representatives, and a 23-11 majority in the State Senate. 
                            • Republican Gov. Jim Justice comes from a coal background and has been opposed to progressive climate policy.

                            Constitutional Constraints

                            • The West Virginia state constitution requires revenue from a gas tax to go towards highway purposes.

                            Past Legislation

                            • SB 583/HB 4562 (2020)
                              • Creates a utility solar program in West Virginia where FirstEnergy and American Electric Power can each install up to 200 megawatts of solar power in 50 megawatt increments.

                            Emission Reduction Target

                            • N/A

                            Further Reading 

                            • N/A

                            Key Figures

                            • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in West Virginia? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                            91.3

                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                            🅲 Commercial: 2.01%
                            🅴 Electric: 66.96%
                            🆁 Residential: 1.99%
                            🅸 Industrial: 14.31%
                            🆃 Transportation: 14.73%
                            🅾 Other: 0%

                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                            48

                            Climate Goals

                            No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                            Carbon Pricing Status

                            Not yet considered

                            Wisconsin

                            Wisconsin has not historically been a leader on climate action. Despite pushback from the legislature, Wisconsin Gov. Tony Evers (D) is pushing for clean energy adoption. On August 16th, 2019, Evers signed an executive order calling for the state’s energy usage to be 100% carbon-free by 2050, making Wisconsin the first Midwestern state with a 100% clean electricity commitment. The order also establishes a new Office of Sustainability and Clean Energy, which will develop the state’s clean energy plan and ensure Wisconsin reaches the carbon reduction goals of the Paris Climate Accords. 

                            With the passage of Executive Order 52 in October 2019, Evers created a climate change task force to come up with recommendations to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. Lieutenant Governor Mandela Barnes will serve as chairman of the task force; other members include Republican and Democratic members of the Legislature and representatives from the state’s agriculture, energy, health, business, education and environmental sectors.

                            More on Wisconsin

                            2021-2022 Legislation

                            • The 2021-2022 Legislative Session convenes on January 4th, 2021 and is scheduled to adjourn on December 31st, 2022.

                            Political Context

                            • Republicans hold a 61-38 majority in the Wisconsin State Assembly, and a 19-14 majority in the State Senate.
                            • Democratic Gov. Tony Evers joined the U.S. Climate Alliance in February 2019, pledging Wisconsin to meet Paris Agreement obligations. 

                            Past Legislation 

                            • N/A

                            Emission Reduction Target

                            • N/A

                            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                            • By 2050: 100% clean energy

                            Further Reading

                            Key Figures

                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                            105.6

                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                            🅲 Commercial: 6.36%
                            🅴 Electric: 37.65%
                            🆁 Residential: 9.66%
                            🅸 Industrial: 15.62%
                            🆃 Transportation: 30.71%
                            🅾 Other: 0%

                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                            30

                            Climate Goals

                            No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                            Carbon Pricing Status

                            Not yet considered

                            Wyoming

                            Wyoming is a challenging state for climate policy, given its large fossil fuel reserves and economy; the state exports over 40% of the nation’s coal and fossil fuel extraction generates billions of dollars of revenue. While Governor Mark Gordon (R) supports maintaining and expanding coal, oil and natural gas extraction, he is also interested in expanding Wyoming’s renewable energy generation — particularly wind energy. Gov. Gordon supports carbon capture and storage technology as a viable solution to continue coal mining and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In March 2020, Gordon and Carbontech Labs — an initiative of the California-based nonprofit Carbon180 —  announced $1.25 million of funding to develop carbon capture and storage technology.

                            More on Wyoming

                            2021 Legislation

                            • The 2021 Legislative Session convenes on January 12th and is scheduled to adjourn on February 27th.

                            Political Context

                            • Wyoming has a Republican state government trifecta. 
                            • Republicans have a 50-9-1 majority in the Wyoming House of Representatives, and a 27-3 majority in the State Senate. 
                            • Republican Gov. Mark Gordon is a proponent of expanding development of Wyoming’s fossil fuel resources.

                            Past Legislation

                            • N/A

                            Emission Reduction Target

                            • N/A

                            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                            • N/A

                            Further Reading

                            • N/A

                            Key Figures

                            • Do you know of key figures working on carbon pricing in Wyoming? Let us know at info@climate-xchange.org.

                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                            64.7

                            Emissions by Sector (%)

                            🅲 Commercial: 1.51%
                            🅴 Electric: 62.69%
                            🆁 Residential: 1.53%
                            🅸 Industrial: 21.70%
                            🆃 Transportation: 12.57%
                            🅾 Other: 0%

                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                            50

                            Climate Goals

                            No state-wide emissions reductions targets

                            Carbon Pricing Status

                            Not yet considered

                            District of Columbia

                            In December 2018, Washington D.C. passed the Clean Energy D.C. Act, considered to be one of the strongest pieces of climate legislation in the country. The bill, which transitions DC to 100% renewable energy by 2032, also invests in energy efficiency, funds local sustainability programs, and creates new building standards. The act also mandates DC to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 50% by 2032, and authorizes the Mayor to impose a carbon fee on motor fuel if Maryland and Virginia do the same. It has been in effect as of March 22nd, 2019.

                            More on D.C.

                            2019-2020 Legislation 

                            • The 2019-2020 Legislative Session began on January 2nd, 2019 and will end on December 31, 2020. 

                            Political Context

                            • D.C. is represented in the House of Representatives by Eleanor Norton (D).
                            • Mayor Muriel Bowser pledged in 2017 to make the District carbon neutral by 2050.

                            Emission Reduction Targets

                            • By 2032: 50% below 2017 levels 
                            • By 2050: 100% below 2017 levels

                            Renewable Portfolio Standard Targets

                            • By 2032: 100% clean energy

                            Past Legislation

                            • The “Clean Energy D.C. Act of 2018” (B22-0904) was introduced by Councilmembers to strengthen the jurisdiction’s 2004 renewable energy standard, and set specific emission-reduction targets. The omnibus bill, which also includes provisions on new building emission standards and funding local sustainability initiatives, notably contains a carbon pricing stipulation.
                              • Fee system: 
                                • This bill will increase the Sustainable Energy Trust Fund fee, established by the Renewable Portfolio Standard Act of 2004. This fee increase will result in a $1 increase to residents’ monthly electric and natural gas bills, and in an approximately $2.10 increase to average gas bills. This fund is used to promote energy efficiency, increase the renewable energy generating capacity of low-income housing, and reduce energy consumption.
                                • This bill will also impose a carbon fee on motor fuel if Maryland and Virginia, the two most common commuter states for D.C., do the same.
                              • Status: Passed in December 2018 and went into effect in January, 2019.

                            Other Carbon Pricing Commitments 

                            Further Reading

                            Key Figures

                            Total Emissions (MMTCO2e)

                            2.6

                            Emissions by Sector (MMTCO2e)

                            🅲 Commercial: 0.9
                            🅴 Electric: 0.0
                            🆁 Residential: 0.7
                            🅸 Industrial: 0.0
                            🆃 Transportation: 1.0

                            Emissions Intensity Ranking

                            States from lowest to highest intensity

                            1

                            Climate Goals

                            Washington D.C. established its legally enforceable mandates in 2017 to reduce emissions

                            By 2032:

                            50%

                            below 2006 levels

                            By 2050:

                            80%

                            below 1990 levels

                            Carbon Pricing Status

                            Enacted on the legislative level
                            Under consideration on the regional level:

                            Transportation and Climate Initiative

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